Archive for research history

Val Meraviglie e Fontanalba (Barocelli 1921)


Barocelli 1921

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Barocelli P. 1921. Val Meraviglie e Fontanalba (Note di escursioni paletnologiche), Atti della Società Piemontese d’Archeologia e Belle Arti, vol. X, fasc. 1, 51 pp., X tavv.
| full text-image and PDF (TRACCE 2015 re-editing) | Italian

[editor’s note: this 1921 paper expresses the first complete archaeological and chronological framework of the Mt. Bego petroglyphic complex; the author, Piero Barocelli was the archaeologist charged with the area, which was at this time managed by the Italian Royal Archaeological Superintendence; Clarence Bicknell, during the last years of his life, passed to him the baton of the research]

by Piero Barocelli – 1921

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Val Meraviglie e Fontanalba – Tavole (Barocelli 1921)

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Barocelli 1921, plates

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Tavole I-X da:
Barocelli P. 1921. Val Meraviglie e Fontanalba (Note di escursioni paletnologiche), Atti della Società Piemontese d’ Archeologia e Belle Arti, vol. X, fasc. 1, 51 pp., X tavv.

| full text-image and PDF (TRACCE 2015 re-editing, public domain) | Italian

[editor’s note: the 1921 paper by Piero Barocelli is enriched by 10 plates – tracings, drawings and pictures – accompanined by very detailed captions]

by Piero Barocelli – 1921

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Mt. Bego, a rediscovered manuscript

Manuscript

Manuscript

The oldest written document regarding European rock art is stored in the Turin State Archive. It is entitled the Academia de Giardini di Belvedere (the Belvedere Gardens Academy).

The manuscript is a copy made around the mid seventeenth century by Pietro Gioffredo, historian of the Savoy House, on the basis of another manuscript, written by Honorato Lorenzo, dating back to the end of the previous century, around 1591, or a few years later.

by Andrea Arcà

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Phaistos, Crete, cup-marks and other signs

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Phaistos, spiral

Rock art enthusiasts and researchers will be pleasantly surprised while discovering the moderate but diffused presence of Minoan Palaces “rock art”; two main categories are present: mason’s marks and cup-marks – so-called kernoi – all these engraved upon the ashlars limestone blocks of the Minoan Palaces, mainly in the first centuries of the 2nd millennium BC. Some interpretation problems arise, concerning the sacred or practical character of the marks and the use of the kernoi as offering tables or as popular or childish board games. A great concentration of such items may be found at the Phaistos Palace...

by Andrea Arcà



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Mount Bego, XIX century research history

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Bego 1887 tracing

Issue 29 of TRACCE Online Rock Art Bulletin is dedicated to the research history of Mt. Bego, from its early “discovery” to the end of the 19th century, with the exception of Clarence Bicknell’s work. Two key points should be emphasized: the relationship with the development of paleethnology and the significance of British “cup-and-rings” studies. All early Mt. Bego authors virtually contribute to this issue since their papers are “served” online, not only as PDF files, but also as “flip-books”, giving in this way importance to sources and online e-book sharing since they provide a useful tool to all researchers interested in rock art studies, especially in this area of the Alps.

by Andrea Arcà (Footsteps of ManIIPP)

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Corografia delle Alpi Marittime (Gioffredo 1660, 1839)


Gioffredo 1660 (1839)

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Gioffredo P., 1839 [~1660]. Storia delle Alpi Marittime, corografia, libro I, in Storia delle Alpi Marittime di Pietro Gioffredo libri XXVI, Torino, capo XIII
| full text-image flip book and PDF (from Google Books, public domain) | Italian

[editor’s note: the first written news of the Laghi delle Meraviglie (Marvels Lakes) – Mt. Bego – engraved rocks, printed edition (1839) of a manuscript compiled around 1660, based on a late 16th century relation]

by Pietro GIOFFREDO

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Voyage aux alpes Maritimes (Foderé 1821)

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Fodéré 1821

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Foderé F. E., 1821. Voyage aux Alpes Maritimes, ou histoire naturelle, agraire, civile et médicale, du comté de Nice et pays limitrophes, Paris, pp. 18-19
| full text-image flip book and PDF (from Google Books, public domain) | French

[editor’s note: in this book it is possible to read the first few lines in French, regarding Mt. Bego’s rock carvings. Dans ce livre on peut lire la première mention imprimée en Français sur les gravures rupestres du Mont Bego]

by François-Emmanuel Foderé

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The Meraviglie (Moggridge 1869)

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1868 drawings

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Moggridge M. 1869. The Meraviglie, in International Congress of prehistoric Archaeology, transactions of the Third Session, London, 359-362, 5 plates.
| full text-image flip book and PDF (from Google Books, public domain) | English

[editor’s note: this paper marking the scientific discovery of Mt. Bego’s petroglyphic complex – one of the two Alpine rock art poles – is due to an English botanist, member of the Italian Alpine Club]

by Matthew MOGGRIDGE, F.G.S. (Fellow of the Geological Society of London)

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Sculptures préhistoriques, Merveilles (Clugnet 1877)

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1877 relevés


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Clugnet Léon, 1877. Sculptures préhistoriques situées sur les bords du lacs des Merveilles (au sud-est du col de Tende, Italie), pp. 379-387.
| full text-image flip book and PDF (from Gallica – BnF, public domain) | French

[editor’s note: research history, In this paper, the first French work, the author, a librarian from Lyon, supports the idea that the engravings were made by shepherds or hunters; detailed plates]

by Léon CLUGNET

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Une excursion aux Lacs des Merveilles (Henry 1877)

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Henry 1887

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Henry [M.] 1877. Une excursion aux Lacs des Merveilles près Saint-Dalmas-de-Tende, Annales de la Société des lettres, science et arts des Alpes-Maritimes, t. IV, pp. 185-205
| full text-image flip book and PDF (from Gallica-BNF, public domain) | French

[editor’s note: The author thinks that the Mt. Bego engravings are natural rocks marking made by the glaciers; no scholar agreed with him]

by [M.] HENRY

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Étude sur les sculptures préhistoriques (Blanc 1878)

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Blanc 1878

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Blanc E., 1878. Étude sur les sculptures préhistoriques du Val d’Enfer près des Lacs des Merveilles, pp. 72-87, 1 pl. h.t.
| full text-image flip book and PDF (from Gallica – BnF, public domain) | French

[editor’s note: in this paper, the author, a librarian from Nice, supports the idea that the engravings were the result of the cult of some malevolent deity, terrifying generator of lightning and thunder]

by Edmond Blanc

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Gravures sur roches, Lacs des Merveilles (Rivière 1879)

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1879 tracings

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Rivière E., 1879. Gravures sur roches des lacs des Merveilles au val d’Enfer (Italie), in Association française pour  l’avancement des sciences, Paris, pp. 783-793, I tav.
| full text-image flip book and PDF (from Gallica – BnF,, public domain) | French

[editor’s note: this paper better details the French scientific discovery of Mt. Bego’s petroglyphic complex and it is due to the physician and archaeologist Émile Rivière, devoted to the study of the Palaeolithic]

by Émile RIVIÈRE

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Iscrizioni simboliche preistoriche (Navello 1884)

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Navello 1884

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Navello S. 1884. Iscrizioni simboliche preistoriche dei laghi delle meraviglie nelle Alpi Marittime, Memoria Navello, pp. 16-21, 2 tavv.
| full text-image flip book and PDF (from TRACCE scan-OCR, public domain) | Italian

[editor’s note: the first Italian detailed paper, presented to the Alpine Club’s congress, “translates” the contents expressed by L. Clugnet as well as re-drawing his plates]

by Serafino NAVELLO (representing the International Alpine Club of Nizza)

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Iscrizioni simboliche, Lago delle Meraviglie (Prato 1884)

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1884, CAI logo

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Prato A. F. 1884. Sulle iscrizioni simboliche del Lago delle Meraviglie, Rivista Alpina Italiana, Periodico mensile del Club Alpino Italiano, 9, 30 settembre 1884, pp. 97-98.
| full text-image flip book and PDF (from TRACCE scan-OCR, public domain) | Italian

[editor’s note: in this short paper, published in the Italian Alpine Club review, the author suggests that the Marvels Lakes engravings where made to celebrate hunters with their preys, who died in this area]

by A. Filippo PRATO

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Alpi Marittime. Escursioni ai monti… Bego (Ghigliotti 1884)

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1884, CAI logo

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Ghigliotti F. 1884. Alpi Marittime, Escursioni ai monti, Bollettino del Club Alpino Italiano, 1884, pp. 225-261.
| full text-image flip book and PDF (from TRACCE scan-OCR, public domain) | Italian

[editor’s note: here an accurate report of a mountaineering ascent to the Mt. Bego summit, with a visit to the rock engravings and the first mention of the well-known Latin inscription “Hoc qui scripsit…”]

by A. Felice GHIGLIOTTI (member of the Italian Alpine Club)

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I laghi delle Meraviglie e Fontanalba (Celesia 1886)

Fontanalba 1886

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Celesia E., 1886. Escursioni alpine, I. – I laghi delle Meraviglie, II. – Fontanalba, estratto Boll. uff. Min. pubblica istr., fasc. V, maggio 1886, 27 pp., 4 tavv.
| full text-image flip book and PDF (TRACCE 2013 re-editing, public domain) | Italian

[editor’s note: Here the discovery of the Fontanalba area, 68 figures in two plates. The first Italian academic paper on Mt. Bego’s engravings, due to the literatus E. Celesia, who suggests that the engravings were made by the Phoenicians]

by Emanuele CELESIA

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Le rupi scolpite delle Alpi Marittime (Issel 1901)

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Fontanalba picture

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Issel A. 1901. Le rupi scolpite nelle alte valli delle Alpi Marittime, Bullettino di paletnologia italiana, s. III, t. VII, a. XXVII, n. 10-12, pp. 218-259.
| full text-image flip book and PDF (from TRACCE scan-OCR, public domain) | Italian

[editor’s note: the most detailed paper until that time on Mt. Bego’s engravings; Issel never recorded the engraved rocks, but attentively examined the literature and was in close and friendly contact with C. Bicknell]

by Arturo ISSEL

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November 8 1994: Côa Valley, a date to remember

José Silvério de Andrade

The rock art community first heard of the existence of a major rock-art site in the Côa river valley on 8 November 1994. In the Anuário da Região Duriense of 1939, José Silvério Andrade refers to several engravings. Andrade’s note never reached the attention of the right scholars. He is the first and real discoverer of the Côa area engravings.

by Mila Simões de Abreu and Alexandre Parafita

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