Archive for Academics

PERSONAJES DE RANGO Y EMBLEMAS DE PODER – PERÚ

El autor – Rainer Hostnig, con residencia en Cusco, Perú – realiza una síntesis comparativa de representaciones del sitio rupestre recientemente registrado de Ñawpakachi (y los demás yacimientos rupestres en el Valle Sagrado, Perú) con figuras grandes de personajes de la élite inca o sus abstracciones en forma de escudos o unkus.

The author – Rainer Hostnig, who resides in Cusco, Peru – performs a comparative synthesis of representations of the recently recorded rock art site of Ñawpakachi (and other sites in the Sacred Valley, Peru) featuring large figures of Inca dignitaries or their abstractions in the form of shields or ‘unkus’.

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Actualización del arte rupestre en la cuenca del río Virú

 

The paper by Daniel Castillo Benites from Peru and María Susana Barrau from Argentina (2016) offers an excellent overview regarding the rock art of the Virú drainage in northern Peru. Yet there are some flaws.

El trabajo de Daniel Castillo Benites (de Perú) y María Susana Barrau (de Argentina) (2016) ofrece una excelente visión general del arte rupestre en la cuenca del río Virú en el norte del Perú. Sin embargo, hay algunas fallas.

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Petroglifos en Yarabamba, Perú: ¿Aplacandos los Apus?

El tema principal de este artículo es la relación entre ciertos petroglifos en el Valle de Yarabamba, sur de Perú, y el volcán El Misti. Para explicar esta relación se discutirán dos tipos de petroglifos en el sitio de Alto de San Antonio en el Valle de Yarabamba.

The main subject of this article is the relationship between certain petroglyphs in the Yarabamba Valley, southern Peru, and the volcano Misti. In order to explain this relationship I will discuss two types of images that are found at the rock art site of Alto de San Antonio in the Yarabamba Valley.

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Petroglifos Únicos en Ariquilda, Chile

Este artículo investiga cuatro iconos raros del sitio de arte rupestre de Ariquilda en el desierto de Atacama en el norte de Chile. Se trata de un grupo de figuras antropomórficas que muestran una actitud muy específica y tres otros motivos muy enigmáticos. He nombrado estos cuatro motivos: ‘Los Hombres Torcidos’, ‘Los Cueros’ y ‘Las Gafas junto con Las Figuras Triangulares’. De nuevo estos iconos confirman el estatus especial de Ariquilda en el arte rupestre andino (véanse también ‘The Avian Staff Bearer’ y ‘Icons That Travel’, ambos publicados en TRACCE).

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Los Petroglifos de Tintín, Sihuas, Arequipa, Perú

logo-oranjeTintín es un sitio pequeño de arte rupestre en el valle del Río Sihuas en el sur de Perú. El sitio, también conocido como Cerro Blanco y Pisanay tiene algunas rocas con petroglifos. La Roca Principal es bastante grande y tiene un gran cantidad de imágenes. Un video muestra los petroglifos en detalle.

Tintín is a small rock site in the Sihuas River valley in southern Peru. The site, also known as Cerro Blanco and Pisanay has some rocks with petroglyphs. The Main Rock is quite large and has a lot of images. A video shows those petroglyphs in detail.

 By Maarten van Hoek Read more

The Petroglyphs of Chumbenique, Zaña, Peru

logo This short paper, together with a YouTube video, describes and illustrates the rock art discovered in the valley of the Río Zaña in northern Peru. The petroglyphs were first described (in Spanish) by archaeologist Edgar Bracamonte in 2014. Because that is the only brief report that exists at the moment, I have written a brief paper in English, while the video (which is in Spanish) offers the illustrations as well as shots of the environment. The locals at Chumbenique know about ‘their’ rock art and I hope that they will encourage locals of their village and of the valley and of course every visitor to Chumbenique to respect and protect this sacred site.

By Maarten van Hoek

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Los Bordes Aserrados de las Rocas de Chuquillanqui, Perú

figure-0-logo-1A menudo un sitio de arte rupestre tiene una característica muy específica que además es a menudo único en ese sitio. Este artículo presenta un elemento tan distintivo en el sitio rupestre de Chuquillanqui en la cuenca del Río Chicama en el norte de Perú.

Often a rock art site has a very specific feature that moreover is often unique to that site. This paper presents such a distinguishing element at the petroglyph site of Chuquillanqui in the Chicama drainage of northern Peru.

by Maarten van Hoek

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Kuntur Wasi, Peru: Architectural Art or Rock Art ?

fig-logo-2Often we find pecked or scratched images on walls of rocks that are part of ancient structures, ranging from simple circular huts to intricate temple complexes. In many cases the rocks that are used have been smoothened before (or after) they were incorporated. In most instances it is clear that those images have been added after the smoothening and after the incorporation of the stones into the structure. Some of them may definitely be regarded as true rock art and not as architectural art, but a few images are ambiguous in this respect. This short paper discusses one such controversial image on a menacing monolith at Kuntur Wasi in northern Peru.

By Maarten van Hoek

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The Frontal Insignia-Tumi

arg-def-defThe Desert Andes (the westernmost coastal strip of South America) is very rich in rock art sites. In rare cases specific images occur at selected sites, often separated by long streches of the desert. Two telling examples are the Avian Staff Bearer and the The Enigmatic Traveller (both published in TRACCE). This study examines another “travelling” icon: The Frontal Insignia-Tumi that is found from Tamentica in the south to – surprisingly – Toro Muerto in the north of the Study Area, a distance of no less than 630 km (as the crow flies).

By Maarten van Hoek

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Sobre Dibujos de Arte Rupestre (Andino)

logo-tracceThe essence of every rock art study must be the image. In most cases the image that we observe is not quite the same as manufactured and/or intended by prehistoric people. It is altered by weathering, erosion and all sorts of anthropic activities. Yet, the resulting image is the only source to use. The best thing to do is to photograph the image, but if one makes a drawing of the image, it should be as correct as possible. Yet, many rock art researchers produce and publish drawings that are not correct. Consequently, their interpretations will be incorrect. This study discusses some examples of incorrect drawings and offers some recommendations.

by Maarten van Hoek

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La paura del ritorno: sepolture “anomale”…

Sewerby, East Yorkshire

Ritrovamenti archeologici e fonti letterarie testimoniano alcuni casi di riapertura di tombe e la mutilazione del cadavere, atti dovuti probabilmente alla volontà di rendere definitivamente innocue persone considerate malvagie, nefaste e pericolose, delle quali si temeva il ritorno in vita e alle quali doveva essere imputato un evento inspiegabile, come morti dovute a epidemie.

by Francesca CECI & Francesca RONCORONI


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Facies locorum – paesaggi e arte rupestre

Valcamonica, la Concarena

Valcamonica, la Concarena

La densità e la varietà delle incisioni presenti sulle rocce, che per un lungo tratto della valle degradano verso l’alveo del fiume Oglio che dai ghiacciai dell’Adamello e dalle molte valli laterali convoglia le acque verso il lago d’Iseo, fanno della Valcamonica un caso esemplare per lo studio dei processi di creazione di un paesaggio. Proprio il carattere più evidente di gran parte del patrimonio figurativo rupestre, l’inamovibilità dai luoghi in cui esso è stato istoriato, solleva una questione che tocca in profondità la nozione di paesaggio.

by Giacomo CAMURI

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Rock art across Australia

Wandjina spirit

As rock art theory has largely been refracted through western conceptual and epistemological underpinnings, it is a valuable (and timely) exercise to redirect art theory through the lens of Indigenous Australians’ geographical and cultural settings. For reasons of brevity, this critical exploration is not to offer a comprehensive road map pertaining to all aspects of vastly complicated socio-artistic elements of Australian Indigenous society but to stimulate discussion.

by Marisa GIORGI

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Piovono capre: i capridi nell’arte rupestre dell’Iran

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Iran, goat-like figure

Il testo qui proposto vuole essere una breve sintesi di quanto si è potuto osservare durante una serie di visite, tra aprile e maggio 2013, in tre siti con arte rupestre in Iran: Kalateh Abdol e Shotor Sang, entrambi prossimi alla città di Mashhad, nella regione del Khorasan, e la zona della piana di Teymareh nella provincia di Khomein, a metà strada tra Tehrān e Esfahan. I siti con arte rupestre in Iran offrono una visione d’insieme che appare di straordinaria importanza e ricchezza. Al loro interno i capridi costituiscono un soggetto di primaria importanza e di vasta diffusione.

by Dario SIGARI Read more

Water supply of the fortress Gala Abu Ahmed

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Sudanese desert

To reconstruct the paleo-environmental conditions near an ancient fortress from Napatantimesin the first millennium BC a 6m deep soil profile in the Sudanese desert was studied using 14C-dating and stable C isotope analyses. Strong evidence for the existence of an open water source or at least a near surface water resource during or near the period of the use of the fortress was found. This would explain the establishment and the operation of the fortress at this remote place.

by Nadia PRAYS, Friederike LANG,
Martin KAUPENJOHANN, Andreas GUNDELWE
IN

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Icons That Travel

0 logoThe Atacama Desert and the Andes in South America are crisscrossed by myriads of paths and tracks. Often those tracks are easily seen in Google Earth as broad bands. Also rock art images narrate of such travels. They mainly depict camelids guided by people. In rare instances however a specific kind of traveller has been depicted on the rocks. I have labelled it ‘The Enigmatic Traveller‘. In this study I describe the distribution of this icon, compare it with similar images and try to explain the meaning of the enigmatic position of the arms of this figure.

By Maarten van Hoek

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El Arpa en el Arte Rupestre Andino

Arpista Andino

Instrumentos musicales rara vez se han representado en el arte rupestre. Por lo tanto el descubrimiento de tres (quizás cuatro) petroglifos de arpas – en dos casos tocando por arpistas – en una pared de roca en el desierto de Atacama de América del Sur, es excepcional. Ciertamente son petroglifos de la época posthispana. Musical instruments have only rarely been depicted in rock art. The discovery of three (perhaps four) petroglyphs of harps – two played by harpists – on a rock wall in the Atacama Desert of South America is therefore exceptional. They certainly are Post-Columbian petroglyphs.

By Maarten van Hoek

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The Avian Staff Bearer

Ariquilda-1

Ariquilda-1

This paper investigates a well-known but rare icon from the rock art of the Atacama Desert. It concerns a group of anthropomorphic figures displaying a very specific bird-related element. For that reason Juan Chacama and Gustavo Espinosa speak of ‘hombres-falcónidas’, ‘raptor-men’, to describe this class of anthropomorphic figures. Remarkably, their interpretation seems to be generally ignored by several archaeologists and rock art investigators. This study presents a revaluation of the theory put forward by Juan Chacama and Gustavo Espinosa in 1997.

By Maarten van Hoek

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