Archive for Academics

The Petroglyphs of Cerro San Diego, Peru

This paper describes the petroglyph site of Cerro San Diego, north of Lima. The site has a rather unusual location. Moreover, it has some exceptional petroglyphs, for instance a large purported “eye-motif” from the Andean Formative Period.

By Maarten van Hoek

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It is very rare to find a unique rock art image repeated on ceramics or textiles from contemporaneous cultures. This study discusses the parallel between the unique petroglyph of a deliberately rotated bird image at Cochineros, a rock art site along the Río Mala, and compares the bird with similar images on ceramics and textiles of a surprisingly large coastal area.

By Maarten van Hoek

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A New Petroglyph Site in the Palpa Valley

 

A New Petroglyph Site in the Palpa Valley

Southern Peru

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Maarten van Hoek

The valley of the Río Palpa, tributary of the Río Grande drainage in the Department of Ica on the south coast of Peru, is very rich in rock art sites; all comprising petroglyphs. At this moment (July 2022) nine sites with petroglyphs had already been recorded (more information about rock art in the Palpa Valley is available in my book about Páracas rock art: Van Hoek 2021: Fig. 7): Mollaque Chico, San Genaro, La Viuda, Pueblo Nuevo, La Cantera 1 (located at both sites of the newly asphalted road), Chichitara, La Cabañita, El Vado and Letrayoq.

It is remarkable that all those sites are found on the left (east) side of the valley. This also applies to a new (tenth) site reported by Joel Chávez Cocinando in July 2021. He calls the site Pueblo Nuevo, but it is in fact found much closer to the rock art site of La Cantera (Núñez Jiménez 1986: 277) and for that reason I prefer to use the name of La Cantera 2. This new site is found about 66 km inland, roughly at 540 m asl (while the valley floor to the west is at 510 m asl). The rock art site (with so far only one decorated boulder) of Pueblo Nuevo (Núñez Jiménez 1986: 273) is 1220 m to the SSW and La Cantera (1) is only 160 m to the NW of La Cantera 2 (Figure 1). The approximate UTM co-ordinates of the La Cantera 2 site are: 485115.00 m E and 8399902.00 m S (in Google Earth 2021).

Figure 1. The location of La Cantera 2 (and 1) in the Palpa Valley, Peru (200 m scale). Map © by Maarten van Hoek, based on Google Earth. Click to enlarge.

There is at least one panel with petroglyphs at La Cantera 2, probably forming part of an outcrop wall SW of an unnamed dry quebrada. As I have not visited this site, I can only give a preliminary description of the petroglyphs (Figure 2). There are at least four outlined images of quadrupeds. Three of the animals (camelids or foxes?) are looking to the NW; one (feline?) is looking to the SE. There are more indeterminable lines among or surrounding those four animals (one possibly depicting a dotted feline?). The style of the images is similar to the petroglyphs found elsewhere in the valley. At the site are many more outcrop panels and fallen boulders, some just possibly with more petroglyphs. This needs to be checked in the field.

Figure 2. The panel at La Cantera 2. Drawing © by Maarten van Hoek (possibly inaccurate), based on the illustrations by Chávez Cocinando 2021.

Even when only one decorated panel is found at this site, it is still important, as its location confirms that the east bank of the valley was clearly favourite when travelling from the coast to the highlands (and vice versa). The site of La Cantera 2 offers views of the river, but its location just west of an ancient trail confirms the deliberately selection of rock art sites that are explained by the movements of people and goods up and down the valley  (Van Hoek 2021: Fig. 58; NB. La Cantera 2 is not marked on this map, but is located at the bottom part to the left of the green line).

REFERENCES

Chávez Cocinando, J. 2021. Petroglifos de Pueblo Nuevo. In: YouTube.

Van Hoek, M. 2021. Seated Bimorphs in Paracas Rock Art. Oisterwijk, Holland. Book only available at ResearchGate.

Music in Majes Valley Rock Art, Peru

This paper considers the role of music and sound possibly depicted in the rock art of the Central Majes Valley (southern Peru) in view of the Middle Horizon musical instruments found at La Real (and Uraca).

By Maarten van Hoek

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The Case of Boulder AP1-001, Alto de Pitis, Peru.

This paper investigates one enormous boulder with numerous petroglyphs at Alto de Pitis, a major rock art site in the Majes Valley of southern Peru. Two types of petroglyphs on this boulder are being described in more detail and discussed within the context of the rock art of the Majes Valley.

By Maarten van Hoek

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Quebrada de La Tuna – Southern Peru

Quebrada de La Tuna is a small, yet important petroglyph site in the Sihuas Valley of southern Peru. As early as 1977 Cuban archaeologist Antonio Núñez Jiménez visited the site and recorded several boulders with petroglyphs. This present study re-describes the site, offering updated information about the rock art (through a survey of 2008), also explaining the position of Núñez Jiménez.

By Maarten van Hoek

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The Mislaid Beringa Petroglyph

This study describes curious cases of “missing” information about petroglyphs reported (and recorded?) at the archaeological complex at Beringa in the Majes Valley of southern Peru. It was claimed (2007) by the leading excavator, Prof. Tiffiny Tung, that all petroglyphs were documented in 2001 and yet not a single illustration of the Beringa petroglyphs is available. Why? This study tries to answer that question, also by placing the issue in a broader context by adding a revealing Addendum.

 By Maarten van Hoek Read more

Vandalism and Falsification of Rock Art

Especially in this time of a dangerously increasing amount of online (deep) fake-news, outrageous lies, falsified photos and misleading information that are used to – for instance – “justify” a disgusting and horrible war in Europe, it should not be tolerated that similar falsifications are being used in scientific publications by academic professionals. In the following two publications I expose and criticize some of those falsifications in rock art publications, focusing on the Majes Falsification. Updated 24 July 2022.

By Maarten van Hoek

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Los Petroglifos de Pariacha, Perú

This study describes a little-known rock art site located on very high ground between the rivers Rímac and Lurín, a short distance inland from the capital of Perú, Lima. It has been reported for the first time in 2014. At least 25 boulders with petroglyphs have been discussed in this study.

Este estudio describe un sitio de arte rupestre poco conocido ubicado en un terreno muy alto entre los ríos Rímac y Lurín, a poca distancia tierra adentro de la capital del Perú, Lima. Se informó por primera vez en 2014. En este estudio se han discutido al menos 25 rocas con petroglifos.

By Van Hoek and Cárdenas

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Los Petroglifos de Purunhuasi, Perú

Report describing a hitherto undescribed rock art site ENE of Lima, Peru. Simple petroglyphs of quadrupeds (camelids?) and abstract motifs predominate, but there is at least one interesting zoomorphic image as well.

Informe que describe un sitio de arte rupestre hasta ahora no descrito ENE de Lima, Perú. Predominan los petroglifos simples de cuadrúpedos (¿camélidos?) y motivos abstractos, pero también hay al menos una imagen zoomorfa interesante.

By Maarten van Hoek and Gustavo Cárdenas

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El Arte Rupestre del Valle de Huarmey

La franja costera extremadamente seca al oeste de los Andes es muy rica en arte rupestre. Sin embargo, la distribución es bastante desigual. Algunos valles tienen una plétora de arte rupestre, como el valle de Reque-Chancay al este de Chiclayo, mientras que otros valles tienen solo unos pocos sitios con una modesta variedad de imágenes de arte rupestre. Uno de esos valles es el valle del río Huarmey. Este artículo presenta una revisión de los seis sitios con arte rupestre de este valle, escrito con la muy apreciada colaboración de Gustavo Cárdenas Huachaca (Perú).

Por Maarten van Hoek y Gustavo Cárdenas

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Vítor Valley Rock Art Sites: Tacar

The coastal areas of the Department of Arequipa in southern Peru are very rich in rock art. Most of the rock art sites are found along or very near river valleys. One of those river valleys that is rich in rock art is the valley of the Río Vítor. In this study the rock art in the stretch of river between the confluence with the Río Yura in the north of the Vítor-Chili drainage and the confluence with the Río Sihuas, further downstream, will be discussed.

By Maarten van Hoek

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The Rock Art Site of La Laja – Peru

La Laja is a major rock art concentration on a large outcrop wall high above the Majes River valley in southern Peru. This article describes the many rock art images at La Laja and attempts at a tentative chronology. Most of the imagery belongs to the Majes Rock Art Style (see Van hoek 2018 for more information), although several images are later.

By Maarten van Hoek

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The Petroglyphs of Cuesta de la Pachana and Miraflores

It is known for more than 80 years that the Manga drainage in southern Peru houses one of the most important rock art sites in this part of the Andes (Illomas). However, apart from Illomas there are a number of smaller, yet important rock art sites in this valley. This study discusses two sites in the Manga Valley that were provisionally recorded in 2018 by the Upper Manga Archaeological Survey Project (University of Toronto, Department of Anthropology, Royal Ontario Museum, Canada). It concerns Cuesta de la Pachana and Miraflores-Pachana.

By Maarten van Hoek

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The Status of Sector-X – Toro Muerto, Peru

Toro Muerto es el sitio de arte rupestre más grande de los Andes, conocido desde 1953. En 2018, un equipo de investigación polaco-peruano inició el Proyecto de Investigación Arqueológica – Toro Muerto (PIA-TM) e inspeccionó una parte informada anteriormente, pero no inspeccionada en el extremo norte del sitio. Se llamaba Sector-X. Este estudio intenta analizar el arte rupestre del Sector-X considerando especialmente el estado del Sector-X dentro del Complejo de Arte Rupestre de Toro Muerto. Para lograr esto, mi estudio se enfoca principalmente en la ocurrencia y distribución de un petroglifo de un ave específico que es exclusivo del Valle Central de Majes en el sur de Perú.

By Maarten van Hoek

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Why Selecting Mollebaya Chico ?

This paper again demonstrates that in the area of the Majes Rock Art Style (Arequipa; southern Peru) many sites are firmly and ritually connected with at least one of the Sacred Mountains (the Apus) of the area. Those volcanoes play an important role in selecting spots for rock art production. Mollebaya Chico is one of those sites.

By Maarten van Hoek

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The Rock Art of La Caldera, Southern Peru

This paper again demonstrates that in the area of the Majes Rock Art Style (Arequipa; southern Peru) many sites are firmly and ritually connected with at least one of the Sacred Mountains (the Apus) of the area. Those volcanoes play an important role in selecting spots for rock art production. La Caldera is one of those sites.

By Maarten van Hoek

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Palamenco and the Shooting Male

Palamenco is a petroglyph site in the coastal area of Northern Peru. It has some special images, including an image of what I interpreted as a “shooting male”. This petroglyph is unique for Palamenco and possibly for Latin America as well. It is compared with more or less similar examples around the world.

By Maarten van Hoek

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