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Animated Abstracts in Majes Rock Art

This paper is one of a series of studies that investigates the rock art of the Majes Rock Art Style (MRAS) in southern Peru. This time I focus on petroglyphs of long, pecked stripes that have been animated by the prehistoric Majes People. I now argue that those Animated Stripes and many other typical MRAS images (discussed earlier by me; see my bibliography), including another icon (the “Majes Spitter”, which is the subject of my next study) created the Toro Muerto Anomaly, which – unfortunately – is either unknown or neglected by archaeologists busy in the Majes Valley.

By Maarten van Hoek

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Imaoun – Morocco: the Venus Cross

Imaoun-1 is one of the most important rock art sites in southern Morocco. In this study I briefly describe the array of petroglyphs at this site, comprising cupules, abstract motifs and patterns and biomorphic images. Imaoun-1 is also special because of its overrepresentation of abstract imagery. In this study I focus on one specific abstract petroglyph (said to have megalithic connotations), and – in more detail – on the Venus Cross, a globally widespread motif that is also overrepresented in this small part of Morocco. Its possible origin and journey across the prehistoric landscapes are also discussed.

By Maarten van Hoek.

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Petroglyphs of Tourirt-n-Tislatine – Morocco

This small petroglyph site in southern Morocco has – despite its limited number of decorated panel – a rather large variety of images. There are petroglyphs of quadrupeds (felines, bovines, antelopes, an elephant, perhaps a goat), some birds (probably ostriches) and one simple, yet interesting petroglyph of an outlined anthropomorphic figure. The site is very easily accessible and thus suffers from vandalism.

By Maarten van Hoek

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Petroglyphs of Imaoun-3A – Southern Morocco

This paper describes a modest petroglyph site just south of the Anti-Atlas of southern Morocco. It is found on a rocky hill, called Jorf Naga, where at least three other rock art sites have been recorded. All four sites play an important role in the rock art traditions of the most important rock art complex of Imaoun and the drainage of Wadi Akka, which – in ancient times – was definitely used as an important north-south migratory route through the Anti-Atlas to the contact zone with the Sahara.

By Maarten van Hoek

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Petroglyphs of Tizounine. Southern Morocco

This petroglyph site – located in the far south of Morocco – has only a small number of decorated panels. Yet there is a surprising variety in imagery, which ranges from biomorphic figures (mainly quadrupeds of the Tazina Style) and abstract motifs, one of which may well depict an (unplayable) game-board. A few (abstract?) motifs are enigmatic.

By Maarten van Hoek

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The Petroglyphs of Jebel Youmkat, Morocco

This paper describes the petroglyphs that my wife and I recorded at the rock art site of Jebel Youmkat in Wadi Tamanart in 2019. As far as I could check, this site has not been published anywhere. The petroglyphs mainly concern images of quadrupeds and some ostriches.

By Maarten van Hoek

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This paper deals with the petroglyph site of Oum el Aleg near Akka in the far south of Morocco. The main subject of the paper is that I argue that there possibly are three images of archers, two of which possibly engaged in a hunting scene. The paper is accompanied by a video about Oum el Aleg, which can be viewed at YouTube.

By Maarten van Hoek

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A Study of Boulder AP3-065 – Peru

This paper presents the fifth case in my series of articles in which I discuss a selection of petroglyph boulders at Alto de Pitis, in the Majes Valley of southern Peru. It especially discusses a controversial petroglyph of an anthropomorph that has been interpreted in two most different ways. One rendering of the figure is questioned in this study (updated September 2023).

By Maarten van Hoek

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Majes Rock Art – evaluating a thesis

This paper analyses the 2018-thesis by Prof. Scaffidi. It concerns a revision (dated September 2023).

by Maarten van Hoek

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The “Camelines” of Toro Muerto

In general, it proves to be rather awkward (or even impossible) to establish the exact species of biomorphic images depicted at Toro Muerto (Peru), and thus this is even more problematic for conflations of two or more animals. In this study I argue that at Toro Muerto several petroglyphs of quadrupeds may well depict a specific conflation. With a number of illustrations I will demonstrate that this hypothesis is not far-fetched at all.

By Maarten van Hoek

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The Case of Boulder AP3-098, Alto de Pitis

This paper – the fourth in a series about Alto de Pitis, all published in TRACCE – discusses some specific petroglyphs on Boulder AP3-098, focusing on the possible therianthrope on one of its panels.

By Maarten van Hoek

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Personaggi dell’arte rupestre della Valcamonica: Emanuele Süss

Emanuele Süss (1909-1996) è stata una figura molto importante per le ricerche e la diffusione dell’arte rupestre della Valcamonica nei primi anni ’50 del ’900. Dopo averle catalogate, disegnò la pianta con la numerazione delle rocce del Parco nazionale nell’area di Naquane. Fu autore del volume “Le Incisioni rupestri della Valcamonica” che ebbe una grande fortuna e che andò incontro a numerose ristampe.  (PDF available)

by Angelo Eugenio FOSSATI – Le Orme dell’Uomo Read more

Personaggi dell’arte rupestre della Valcamonica: Giovanni Marro

Giovanni Marro (1875-1952) è senza dubbio la figura più discussa tra tutti i ricercatori dell’arte rupestre della Valcamonica nella prima metà del ’900. E’ importante sottolineare il ruolo dello studioso nell’ambito delle scoperte. Egli percorreva i boschi a piedi inoltrandosi nei castagneti dov’erano presenti le rocce incise – infatti è ricordato anche come “il grande camminatore” – e scopriva le figure rupestri rimuovendo l’humus, spesso con l’aiuto di persone del posto, tra le quali il Marro utilizzava soprattutto Giuseppe Amaracco di Capo di Ponte. (PDF available)

by Angelo Eugenio FOSSATI – Le Orme dell’Uomo Read more

Personaggi dell’arte rupestre della Valcamonica: Giovanni Marini

Giovanni Marini era davvero instancabile e appena poteva conduceva in visita gruppi italiani – anche scuole – e stranieri interessati a vedere il Parco di Luine con le incisioni rupestri più antiche della Valle. Una rara fotografia scattata nell’ottobre del 1990 lo ritrae seduto sulla roccia n. 73 ed intento a illustrare alcune figure di mani, rappresentazioni tra le più rare del Parco.  (PDF available).

by Angelo Eugenio FOSSATI – Le Orme dell’Uomo Read more

Personaggi dell’arte rupestre della Valcamonica: Battista Maffessoli

Il mondo accademico italiano e straniero deve molto a Battista Maffessoli, artigiano, artista eclettico (pittore e scultore) dalla complessa personalità, guida alle incisioni rupestri per gruppi – sono nell’ordine di migliaia le persone che negli anni ha accompagnato a visitare le incisioni rupestri – e singoli, tra cui vanno annoverati praticamente tutti gli studiosi oggi attivi nelle ricerche dell’arte rupestre della Valcamonica.  (PDF available).

by Angelo Eugenio FOSSATI – Le Orme dell’Uomo Read more

Personaggi dell’arte rupestre della Valcamonica: Jack Belmondo

Il percorso artistico e archeologico sperimentale di Jack Belmondo – nome d’arte di Giuseppe Belfiore Mondoni non può essere separato dal suo luogo di nascita, Cerveno, piccolo paese della media Valcamonica. Le prime ricostruzioni di archeologia sperimentale – modellini di capanne, di carri ed aratri – furono da lui eseguite nel 1988 ed esposte nel Museo di Nadro sino al 1991. Tra il 1989 ed il 1990 iniziò le prime esperienze di fusione dei metalli, allo scopo di ottenere quelli che gli parevano i manufatti più interessanti.  (PDF available).

by Angelo Eugenio FOSSATI – Le Orme dell’Uomo Read more

Personaggi dell’arte rupestre della Valcamonica: Raffaello Battaglia

Raffaello Battaglia è il quarto studioso ad occuparsi dell’arte rupestre della Valcamonica dopo Laeng, Graziosi e Marro, ma fu sicuramente il primo ad occuparsene scientificamente, dopo Paolo Graziosi. Insieme a suoi collaboratori, rinvenne numerosi siti con incisioni. Tra queste, famosa resta la scoperta e pubblicazione delle rocce di Bedolina (PDF available).

by Angelo Eugenio FOSSATI – Le Orme dell’Uomo Read more

The Case of Boulder AP3-060, Alto de Pitis, Majes Valley

My paper describes the images on a boulder that has one of the most complex biomorphic petroglyphs in the Majes Valley and in Arequipa rock art. It may well be death-related, as will be demonstrated. Another death-related petroglyph on an adjoining panel definitely links the boulder – and the whole site – with Apu Coropuna, the most Sacred Mountain of the whole of southern Peru.

By  Maarten van Hoek
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Paolo Emilio Bagnoli and photometric 3D applied to rock art

Worldwide, Paolo Emilio Bagnoli, former full professor of Photonics and Optoelectronics at Pisa University, is among the few researchers active in the rock art field to apply to engraved rocks the method of 3D modelling on a photometric basis. As a tribute to his memory, it is appropriate to remember him in his own words in relation to the photometric technique applied to 3D modelling (PDF available).

by Andrea Arcà – Footprints of Man Read more

Vivere con l’arte rupestre nelle Alpi

Seminario di studi online
a cura della Cooperativa Archeologica
Le Orme dell’Uomo.
Venerdì 30 dicembre 2022
h 18:00-20:00 C.E.T.
YouTube: https://bit.ly/3WyPcJP

Le Orme dell’UomoFootsteps of Man Read more

Rock Art at Torán, Majes Valley, Peru

The paper proves that even “minor” rock art sites can be most interesting, especially when placing such a “minor” site in a larger local and regional context. Torán is such an important “minor” site, as it is clearly connected with the two most important “major” rock art sites in the valley; Toro Muerto and Alto de Pitis.

By Maarten van Hoek

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Rock Art at Punta Colorada, Majes, Peru

The paper proves that even “minor” rock art sites can be most interesting, especially when placing such a “minor” site in a larger local and regional context. Punta Colorada is such an important “minor” site as it may well connect (graphically, literally and metaphorically) two most important “major” rock art sites in the valley. Additionally, the site of Punta Colorada also seems to establish the spiritual link between certain rock art icons and Apu Coropuna, the Sacred Mountain of southern Peru.

By Maarten van Hoek

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The Case of Boulder AP3-172, Majes, Peru

This paper describes a huge boulder at Alto de Pitis in the Majes Valley of southern Peru. It has some enigmatic petroglyphs that will be fully discussed. Especially one type of image is most idiosyncratic. It may depict or symbolise domestication of felines.

By Maarten van Hoek

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The Petroglyphs of Cerro San Diego, Peru

This paper describes the petroglyph site of Cerro San Diego, north of Lima. The site has a rather unusual location. Moreover, it has some exceptional petroglyphs, for instance a large purported “eye-motif” from the Andean Formative Period.

By Maarten van Hoek

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The Origin of the Cochineros Bird

It is very rare to find a unique rock art image repeated on ceramics or textiles from contemporaneous cultures. This study discusses the parallel between the unique petroglyph of a deliberately rotated bird image at Cochineros, a rock art site along the Río Mala, and compares the bird with similar images on ceramics and textiles of a surprisingly large coastal area.

By Maarten van Hoek

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A New Petroglyph Site in the Palpa Valley

The valley of the Río Palpa, tributary of the Río Grande drainage in the Department of Ica on the south coast of Peru, is very rich in rock art sites; all comprising petroglyphs. At this moment (July 2022) nine sites with petroglyphs had already been recorded (more information about rock art in the Palpa Valley is available in my book about Páracas rock art: Van Hoek 2021: Fig. 7

By Maarten van Hoek
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Music in Majes Valley Rock Art, Peru

This paper considers the role of music and sound possibly depicted in the rock art of the Central Majes Valley (southern Peru) in view of the Middle Horizon musical instruments found at La Real (and Uraca).

By Maarten van Hoek

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The Case of Boulder AP1-001, Alto de Pitis, Peru.

This paper investigates one enormous boulder with numerous petroglyphs at Alto de Pitis, a major rock art site in the Majes Valley of southern Peru. Two types of petroglyphs on this boulder are being described in more detail and discussed within the context of the rock art of the Majes Valley.

By Maarten van Hoek (Revised September 2023)

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Quebrada de La Tuna – Southern Peru

Quebrada de La Tuna is a small, yet important petroglyph site in the Sihuas Valley of southern Peru. As early as 1977 Cuban archaeologist Antonio Núñez Jiménez visited the site and recorded several boulders with petroglyphs. This present study re-describes the site, offering updated information about the rock art (based on our survey of 2008), also explaining the position of Núñez Jiménez.

By Maarten van Hoek

Read more

Paolo Emilio Bagnoli and photometric 3D applied to rock art

Worldwide, Paolo Emilio Bagnoli, former full professor of Photonics and Optoelectronics at Pisa University, is among the few researchers active in the rock art field to apply to engraved rocks the method of 3D modelling on a photometric basis. As a tribute to his memory, it is appropriate to remember him in his own words in relation to the photometric technique applied to 3D modelling (PDF available).

by Andrea Arcà – Footprints of Man Read more

Vivere con l’arte rupestre nelle Alpi

Seminario di studi online
a cura della Cooperativa Archeologica
Le Orme dell’Uomo.
Venerdì 30 dicembre 2022
h 18:00-20:00 C.E.T.
YouTube: https://bit.ly/3WyPcJP

Le Orme dell’UomoFootsteps of Man Read more

Rock Art at Torán, Majes Valley, Peru

The paper proves that even “minor” rock art sites can be most interesting, especially when placing such a “minor” site in a larger local and regional context. Torán is such an important “minor” site, as it is clearly connected with the two most important “major” rock art sites in the valley; Toro Muerto and Alto de Pitis.

By Maarten van Hoek

Read more

Rock Art at Punta Colorada, Majes, Peru

The paper proves that even “minor” rock art sites can be most interesting, especially when placing such a “minor” site in a larger local and regional context. Punta Colorada is such an important “minor” site as it may well connect (graphically, literally and metaphorically) two most important “major” rock art sites in the valley. Additionally, the site of Punta Colorada also seems to establish the spiritual link between certain rock art icons and Apu Coropuna, the Sacred Mountain of southern Peru.

By Maarten van Hoek

Read more

The Case of Boulder AP3-172, Majes, Peru

This paper describes a huge boulder at Alto de Pitis in the Majes Valley of southern Peru. It has some enigmatic petroglyphs that will be fully discussed. Especially one type of image is most idiosyncratic. It may depict or symbolise domestication of felines.

By Maarten van Hoek

Read more

The Petroglyphs of Cerro San Diego, Peru

This paper describes the petroglyph site of Cerro San Diego, north of Lima. The site has a rather unusual location. Moreover, it has some exceptional petroglyphs, for instance a large purported “eye-motif” from the Andean Formative Period.

By Maarten van Hoek

Read more

The Origin of the Cochineros Bird

It is very rare to find a unique rock art image repeated on ceramics or textiles from contemporaneous cultures. This study discusses the parallel between the unique petroglyph of a deliberately rotated bird image at Cochineros, a rock art site along the Río Mala, and compares the bird with similar images on ceramics and textiles of a surprisingly large coastal area.

By Maarten van Hoek

Read more

A New Petroglyph Site in the Palpa Valley

The valley of the Río Palpa, tributary of the Río Grande drainage in the Department of Ica on the south coast of Peru, is very rich in rock art sites; all comprising petroglyphs. At this moment (July 2022) nine sites with petroglyphs had already been recorded (more information about rock art in the Palpa Valley is available in my book about Páracas rock art: Van Hoek 2021: Fig. 7

By Maarten van Hoek
Read more

Music in Majes Valley Rock Art, Peru

This paper considers the role of music and sound possibly depicted in the rock art of the Central Majes Valley (southern Peru) in view of the Middle Horizon musical instruments found at La Real (and Uraca).

By Maarten van Hoek

Read more

The Case of Boulder AP1-001, Alto de Pitis, Peru.

This paper investigates one enormous boulder with numerous petroglyphs at Alto de Pitis, a major rock art site in the Majes Valley of southern Peru. Two types of petroglyphs on this boulder are being described in more detail and discussed within the context of the rock art of the Majes Valley.

By Maarten van Hoek (Revised September 2023)

Read more

Quebrada de La Tuna – Southern Peru

Quebrada de La Tuna is a small, yet important petroglyph site in the Sihuas Valley of southern Peru. As early as 1977 Cuban archaeologist Antonio Núñez Jiménez visited the site and recorded several boulders with petroglyphs. This present study re-describes the site, offering updated information about the rock art (based on our survey of 2008), also explaining the position of Núñez Jiménez.

By Maarten van Hoek

Read more

The Mislaid Beringa Petroglyph

This study describes curious cases of “missing” information about petroglyphs reported (and recorded?) at the archaeological complex at Beringa in the Majes Valley of southern Peru. It was claimed (2007) by the leading excavator, Prof. Tiffiny Tung, that all petroglyphs were documented in 2001 and yet not a single illustration / description of the Beringa petroglyphs is available. This study tries to answer that inconsistency. Updated September 2023.

By Maarten van Hoek

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Vandalism and Falsification of Rock Art

Especially in this time of a dangerously increasing amount of online (deep) fake-news, outrageous lies, falsified photos and misleading information that are used to – for instance – “justify” a disgusting and horrible war in Europe, it should not be tolerated that similar false illustrations are being used in scientific publications by academic professionals. In the following two publications I expose and criticize some of those incorrect illustrations in rock art publications, focusing on the Majes Valley in Peru (Revised September 2023).

By Maarten van Hoek

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Los Petroglifos de Pariacha, Perú

This study describes a little-known rock art site located on very high ground between the rivers Rímac and Lurín, a short distance inland from the capital of Perú, Lima. It has been reported for the first time in 2014. At least 25 boulders with petroglyphs have been discussed in this study.

Este estudio describe un sitio de arte rupestre poco conocido ubicado en un terreno muy alto entre los ríos Rímac y Lurín, a poca distancia tierra adentro de la capital del Perú, Lima. Se informó por primera vez en 2014. En este estudio se han discutido al menos 25 rocas con petroglifos.

By Van Hoek and Cárdenas

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Los Petroglifos de Purunhuasi, Perú

Report describing a hitherto undescribed rock art site ENE of Lima, Peru. Simple petroglyphs of quadrupeds (camelids?) and abstract motifs predominate, but there is at least one interesting zoomorphic image as well.

Informe que describe un sitio de arte rupestre hasta ahora no descrito ENE de Lima, Perú. Predominan los petroglifos simples de cuadrúpedos (¿camélidos?) y motivos abstractos, pero también hay al menos una imagen zoomorfa interesante.

By Maarten van Hoek and Gustavo Cárdenas

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El Arte Rupestre del Valle de Huarmey

La franja costera extremadamente seca al oeste de los Andes es muy rica en arte rupestre. Sin embargo, la distribución es bastante desigual. Algunos valles tienen una plétora de arte rupestre, como el valle de Reque-Chancay al este de Chiclayo, mientras que otros valles tienen solo unos pocos sitios con una modesta variedad de imágenes de arte rupestre. Uno de esos valles es el valle del río Huarmey. Este artículo presenta una revisión de los seis sitios con arte rupestre de este valle, escrito con la muy apreciada colaboración de Gustavo Cárdenas Huachaca (Perú).

Por Maarten van Hoek y Gustavo Cárdenas

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Vítor Valley Rock Art Sites: Tacar

The coastal areas of the Department of Arequipa in southern Peru are very rich in rock art. Most of the rock art sites are found along or very near river valleys. One of those river valleys that is rich in rock art is the valley of the Río Vítor. In this study the rock art in the stretch of river between the confluence with the Río Yura in the north of the Vítor-Chili drainage and the confluence with the Río Sihuas, further downstream, will be discussed.

By Maarten van Hoek

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The Rock Art Site of La Laja – Peru

La Laja is a major rock art concentration on a large outcrop wall high above the Majes River valley in southern Peru. This article describes the many rock art images at La Laja and attempts at a tentative chronology. Most of the imagery belongs to the Majes Rock Art Style (see Van hoek 2018 for more information), although several images are later.

By Maarten van Hoek

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