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Petroglyphs of Tourirt-n-Tislatine – Morocco

This small petroglyph site in southern Morocco has – despite its limited number of decorated panel – a rather large variety of images. There are petroglyphs of quadrupeds (felines, bovines, antelopes, an elephant, perhaps a goat), some birds (probably ostriches) and one simple, yet interesting petroglyph of an outlined anthropomorphic figure. The site is very easily accessible and thus suffers from vandalism.

By Maarten van Hoek

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Petroglyphs of Imaoun-3A – Southern Morocco

This paper describes a modest petroglyph site just south of the Anti-Atlas of southern Morocco. It is found on a rocky hill, called Jorf Naga, where at least three other rock art sites have been recorded. All four sites play an important role in the rock art traditions of the most important rock art complex of Imaoun and the drainage of Wadi Akka, which – in ancient times – was definitely used as an important north-south migratory route through the Anti-Atlas to the contact zone with the Sahara.

By Maarten van Hoek

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Petroglyphs of Tizounine. Southern Morocco

This petroglyph site – located in the far south of Morocco – has only a small number of decorated panels. Yet there is a surprising variety in imagery, which ranges from biomorphic figures (mainly quadrupeds of the Tazina Style) and abstract motifs, one of which may well depict an (unplayable) game-board. A few (abstract?) motifs are enigmatic.

By Maarten van Hoek

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The Petroglyphs of Jebel Youmkat, Morocco

This paper describes the petroglyphs that my wife and I recorded at the rock art site of Jebel Youmkat in Wadi Tamanart in 2019. As far as I could check, this site has not been published anywhere. The petroglyphs mainly concern images of quadrupeds and some ostriches.

By Maarten van Hoek

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This paper deals with the petroglyph site of Oum el Aleg near Akka in the far south of Morocco. The main subject of the paper is that I argue that there possibly are three images of archers, two of which possibly engaged in a hunting scene. The paper is accompanied by a video about Oum el Aleg, which can be viewed at YouTube.

By Maarten van Hoek

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A Study of Boulder AP3-065 – Peru

This paper presents the fifth case in my series of articles in which I discuss a selection of petroglyph boulders at Alto de Pitis, in the Majes Valley of southern Peru. It especially discusses a controversial petroglyph of an anthropomorph that has been interpreted in two most different ways. One rendering of the figure is questioned in this study (updated September 2023).

By Maarten van Hoek

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Majes Rock Art – evaluating a thesis

This paper analyses the 2018-thesis by Prof. Scaffidi. It concerns a revision (dated September 2023).

by Maarten van Hoek

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The “Camelines” of Toro Muerto

In general, it proves to be rather awkward (or even impossible) to establish the exact species of biomorphic images depicted at Toro Muerto (Peru), and thus this is even more problematic for conflations of two or more animals. In this study I argue that at Toro Muerto several petroglyphs of quadrupeds may well depict a specific conflation. With a number of illustrations I will demonstrate that this hypothesis is not far-fetched at all.

By Maarten van Hoek

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The Case of Boulder AP3-098, Alto de Pitis

This paper – the fourth in a series about Alto de Pitis, all published in TRACCE – discusses some specific petroglyphs on Boulder AP3-098, focusing on the possible therianthrope on one of its panels.

By Maarten van Hoek

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Personaggi dell’arte rupestre della Valcamonica: Emanuele Süss

Emanuele Süss (1909-1996) è stata una figura molto importante per le ricerche e la diffusione dell’arte rupestre della Valcamonica nei primi anni ’50 del ’900. Dopo averle catalogate, disegnò la pianta con la numerazione delle rocce del Parco nazionale nell’area di Naquane. Fu autore del volume “Le Incisioni rupestri della Valcamonica” che ebbe una grande fortuna e che andò incontro a numerose ristampe.  (PDF available)

by Angelo Eugenio FOSSATI – Le Orme dell’Uomo Read more

Personaggi dell’arte rupestre della Valcamonica: Giovanni Marro

Giovanni Marro (1875-1952) è senza dubbio la figura più discussa tra tutti i ricercatori dell’arte rupestre della Valcamonica nella prima metà del ’900. E’ importante sottolineare il ruolo dello studioso nell’ambito delle scoperte. Egli percorreva i boschi a piedi inoltrandosi nei castagneti dov’erano presenti le rocce incise – infatti è ricordato anche come “il grande camminatore” – e scopriva le figure rupestri rimuovendo l’humus, spesso con l’aiuto di persone del posto, tra le quali il Marro utilizzava soprattutto Giuseppe Amaracco di Capo di Ponte. (PDF available)

by Angelo Eugenio FOSSATI – Le Orme dell’Uomo Read more

Personaggi dell’arte rupestre della Valcamonica: Giovanni Marini

Giovanni Marini era davvero instancabile e appena poteva conduceva in visita gruppi italiani – anche scuole – e stranieri interessati a vedere il Parco di Luine con le incisioni rupestri più antiche della Valle. Una rara fotografia scattata nell’ottobre del 1990 lo ritrae seduto sulla roccia n. 73 ed intento a illustrare alcune figure di mani, rappresentazioni tra le più rare del Parco.  (PDF available).

by Angelo Eugenio FOSSATI – Le Orme dell’Uomo Read more

Personaggi dell’arte rupestre della Valcamonica: Battista Maffessoli

Il mondo accademico italiano e straniero deve molto a Battista Maffessoli, artigiano, artista eclettico (pittore e scultore) dalla complessa personalità, guida alle incisioni rupestri per gruppi – sono nell’ordine di migliaia le persone che negli anni ha accompagnato a visitare le incisioni rupestri – e singoli, tra cui vanno annoverati praticamente tutti gli studiosi oggi attivi nelle ricerche dell’arte rupestre della Valcamonica.  (PDF available).

by Angelo Eugenio FOSSATI – Le Orme dell’Uomo Read more

Personaggi dell’arte rupestre della Valcamonica: Jack Belmondo

Il percorso artistico e archeologico sperimentale di Jack Belmondo – nome d’arte di Giuseppe Belfiore Mondoni non può essere separato dal suo luogo di nascita, Cerveno, piccolo paese della media Valcamonica. Le prime ricostruzioni di archeologia sperimentale – modellini di capanne, di carri ed aratri – furono da lui eseguite nel 1988 ed esposte nel Museo di Nadro sino al 1991. Tra il 1989 ed il 1990 iniziò le prime esperienze di fusione dei metalli, allo scopo di ottenere quelli che gli parevano i manufatti più interessanti.  (PDF available).

by Angelo Eugenio FOSSATI – Le Orme dell’Uomo Read more

Personaggi dell’arte rupestre della Valcamonica: Raffaello Battaglia

Raffaello Battaglia è il quarto studioso ad occuparsi dell’arte rupestre della Valcamonica dopo Laeng, Graziosi e Marro, ma fu sicuramente il primo ad occuparsene scientificamente, dopo Paolo Graziosi. Insieme a suoi collaboratori, rinvenne numerosi siti con incisioni. Tra queste, famosa resta la scoperta e pubblicazione delle rocce di Bedolina (PDF available).

by Angelo Eugenio FOSSATI – Le Orme dell’Uomo Read more

The Case of Boulder AP3-060, Alto de Pitis, Majes Valley

My paper describes the images on a boulder that has one of the most complex biomorphic petroglyphs in the Majes Valley and in Arequipa rock art. It may well be death-related, as will be demonstrated. Another death-related petroglyph on an adjoining panel definitely links the boulder – and the whole site – with Apu Coropuna, the most Sacred Mountain of the whole of southern Peru.

By  Maarten van Hoek
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Paolo Emilio Bagnoli and photometric 3D applied to rock art

Worldwide, Paolo Emilio Bagnoli, former full professor of Photonics and Optoelectronics at Pisa University, is among the few researchers active in the rock art field to apply to engraved rocks the method of 3D modelling on a photometric basis. As a tribute to his memory, it is appropriate to remember him in his own words in relation to the photometric technique applied to 3D modelling (PDF available).

by Andrea Arcà – Footprints of Man Read more

Vivere con l’arte rupestre nelle Alpi

Seminario di studi online
a cura della Cooperativa Archeologica
Le Orme dell’Uomo.
Venerdì 30 dicembre 2022
h 18:00-20:00 C.E.T.
YouTube: https://bit.ly/3WyPcJP

Le Orme dell’UomoFootsteps of Man Read more

Rock Art at Torán, Majes Valley, Peru

The paper proves that even “minor” rock art sites can be most interesting, especially when placing such a “minor” site in a larger local and regional context. Torán is such an important “minor” site, as it is clearly connected with the two most important “major” rock art sites in the valley; Toro Muerto and Alto de Pitis.

By Maarten van Hoek

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Rock Art at Punta Colorada, Majes, Peru

The paper proves that even “minor” rock art sites can be most interesting, especially when placing such a “minor” site in a larger local and regional context. Punta Colorada is such an important “minor” site as it may well connect (graphically, literally and metaphorically) two most important “major” rock art sites in the valley. Additionally, the site of Punta Colorada also seems to establish the spiritual link between certain rock art icons and Apu Coropuna, the Sacred Mountain of southern Peru.

By Maarten van Hoek

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The Case of Boulder AP3-172, Majes, Peru

This paper describes a huge boulder at Alto de Pitis in the Majes Valley of southern Peru. It has some enigmatic petroglyphs that will be fully discussed. Especially one type of image is most idiosyncratic. It may depict or symbolise domestication of felines.

By Maarten van Hoek

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The Petroglyphs of Cerro San Diego, Peru

This paper describes the petroglyph site of Cerro San Diego, north of Lima. The site has a rather unusual location. Moreover, it has some exceptional petroglyphs, for instance a large purported “eye-motif” from the Andean Formative Period.

By Maarten van Hoek

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The Origin of the Cochineros Bird

It is very rare to find a unique rock art image repeated on ceramics or textiles from contemporaneous cultures. This study discusses the parallel between the unique petroglyph of a deliberately rotated bird image at Cochineros, a rock art site along the Río Mala, and compares the bird with similar images on ceramics and textiles of a surprisingly large coastal area.

By Maarten van Hoek

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A New Petroglyph Site in the Palpa Valley

The valley of the Río Palpa, tributary of the Río Grande drainage in the Department of Ica on the south coast of Peru, is very rich in rock art sites; all comprising petroglyphs. At this moment (July 2022) nine sites with petroglyphs had already been recorded (more information about rock art in the Palpa Valley is available in my book about Páracas rock art: Van Hoek 2021: Fig. 7

By Maarten van Hoek
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Music in Majes Valley Rock Art, Peru

This paper considers the role of music and sound possibly depicted in the rock art of the Central Majes Valley (southern Peru) in view of the Middle Horizon musical instruments found at La Real (and Uraca).

By Maarten van Hoek

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The Case of Boulder AP1-001, Alto de Pitis, Peru.

This paper investigates one enormous boulder with numerous petroglyphs at Alto de Pitis, a major rock art site in the Majes Valley of southern Peru. Two types of petroglyphs on this boulder are being described in more detail and discussed within the context of the rock art of the Majes Valley.

By Maarten van Hoek (Revised September 2023)

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Quebrada de La Tuna – Southern Peru

Quebrada de La Tuna is a small, yet important petroglyph site in the Sihuas Valley of southern Peru. As early as 1977 Cuban archaeologist Antonio Núñez Jiménez visited the site and recorded several boulders with petroglyphs. This present study re-describes the site, offering updated information about the rock art (based on our survey of 2008), also explaining the position of Núñez Jiménez.

By Maarten van Hoek

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The Mislaid Beringa Petroglyph

This study describes curious cases of “missing” information about petroglyphs reported (and recorded?) at the archaeological complex at Beringa in the Majes Valley of southern Peru. It was claimed (2007) by the leading excavator, Prof. Tiffiny Tung, that all petroglyphs were documented in 2001 and yet not a single illustration / description of the Beringa petroglyphs is available. This study tries to answer that inconsistency. Updated September 2023.

By Maarten van Hoek

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Vandalism and Falsification of Rock Art

Especially in this time of a dangerously increasing amount of online (deep) fake-news, outrageous lies, falsified photos and misleading information that are used to – for instance – “justify” a disgusting and horrible war in Europe, it should not be tolerated that similar false illustrations are being used in scientific publications by academic professionals. In the following two publications I expose and criticize some of those incorrect illustrations in rock art publications, focusing on the Majes Valley in Peru (Revised September 2023).

By Maarten van Hoek

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The Status of Sector-X – Toro Muerto, Peru

Toro Muerto es el sitio de arte rupestre más grande de los Andes, conocido desde 1953. En 2018, un equipo de investigación polaco-peruano inició el Proyecto de Investigación Arqueológica – Toro Muerto (PIA-TM) e inspeccionó una parte informada anteriormente, pero no inspeccionada en el extremo norte del sitio. Se llamaba Sector-X. Este estudio intenta analizar el arte rupestre del Sector-X considerando especialmente el estado del Sector-X dentro del Complejo de Arte Rupestre de Toro Muerto. Para lograr esto, mi estudio se enfoca principalmente en la ocurrencia y distribución de un petroglifo de un ave específico que es exclusivo del Valle Central de Majes en el sur de Perú.

By Maarten van Hoek

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Why Selecting Mollebaya Chico ?

This paper again demonstrates that in the area of the Majes Rock Art Style (Arequipa; southern Peru) many sites are firmly and ritually connected with at least one of the Sacred Mountains (the Apus) of the area. Those volcanoes play an important role in selecting spots for rock art production. Mollebaya Chico is one of those sites.

By Maarten van Hoek

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The Rock Art of La Caldera, Southern Peru

This paper again demonstrates that in the area of the Majes Rock Art Style (Arequipa; southern Peru) many sites are firmly and ritually connected with at least one of the Sacred Mountains (the Apus) of the area. Those volcanoes play an important role in selecting spots for rock art production. La Caldera is one of those sites.

By Maarten van Hoek

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Updating the Rock Art near Huaca Blanca, Peru

Many rock art sites are easily destroyed, also in Peru, especially because of road constructions or mining activities. This paper describes three petroglyph sites near the village of Huaca Blanca in northern Peru. Especially Huaca Blanca has already been partially destroyed by unwanted quarrying. This paper offers a brief inventory of what is (was!) available during our surveys. The thumbnail to the right shows a prehistoric petroglyph next to recent damage.

By Maarten van Hoek

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Palamenco and the Shooting Male

Palamenco is a petroglyph site in the coastal area of Northern Peru. It has some special images, including an image of what I interpreted as a “shooting male”. This petroglyph is unique for Palamenco and possibly for Latin America as well. It is compared with more or less similar examples around the world.

By Maarten van Hoek

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Petroglyphs and a New Geoglyph in the Sama Valley

The Sama Valley in southern Peru has only a few rock art sites. This article describes one of those sites, which is located at Coropuro on the south bank of the river. It has a interesting collection of petroglyphs, some of which might be linked to a previously unnoticed geoglyph nearby.

By Maarten van Hoek

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Valcamonica Rock Art Fieldwork 2021

The Footsteps of Man Archaeological Cooperative Society is based in Valcamonica, an Alpine valley in Northern Italy, where rock art constitutes an archaeological, artistic, ethnographic and historical patrimony of inestimable value (UNESCO World Heritage List). In collaboration with the Catholic University of Brescia, Footsteps of Man organizes its annual Valcamonica Rock Art & Archaeology Field School in Paspardo, one of the principal area where engravings are concentrated. The project participants will learn how
to survey, clean, photograph, draw and catalogue the rock engravings at sites around Paspardo. During the field season, visits to the major rock art parks and museums in Valcamonica will be organized.

by Angelo Eugenio Fossati

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The Cíceras “Carcancha-Bird” Petroglyphs – Majes, Peru

The Majes drainage in southern Peru boasts the largest collection of rock art in the Andes, especially because of the abundance of petroglyphs at the Toro Muerto and Alto de Pitis. Importantly, both sites have numerous bird petroglyphs of different types. Yet there are other sites in the Majes drainage that also have idiosyncratic bird imagery. One of those sites is Cíceras, which is the subject of this study. I focus on a specific type of bird petroglyphs, for which I tentatively suggest that they have a special transcendent proficiency.

By Maarten van Hoek Read more

War and Weapons in Majes Style Rock Art?

This study investigates the possibility whether rock art images in the Majes Valley of southern Peru indeed depict weapons or conflicts between humans. The bio-archaeological excavations and research at Uraca (Majes Valley) by Beth Scaffidi and Tiffiny Tung  suggest that the rock art of especially neighbouring Toro Muerto conveys a preoccupation with violence (Scaffidi and Tung 2020). However, the current study demonstrates that there is not any proof or any convincing graphical context confirming “violent events in nearby petroglyphs”.

By Maarten van Hoek

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New Pictographs at Guatin – Northern Chile

In 2013 Mario Giorgetta, an academic botanist from Switzerland, discovered for the first time a small rock panel with a collection of clearly associated pictographs on a rock cliff in the gorge of the Río Vilama. Mario reported the site to me in 2019 and we agreed to publish a paper describing the panel and its context. This paper comprises two parts. The first part is written by Maarten van Hoek and briefly attempts at interpreting the elements that make up the pictograph scene and the second part is independently written by the discoverer of the pictograph panel at Guatin, Mario Giorgetta.

by Maarten van Hoek and Mario Giorgetta
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Contextualising the Geoglyph of Huacán, southern Peru

Arequipa in southern Peru is very rich in rock art. This study investigates the relationship between the Majes Rock Art Style and the geoglyphs (not a form of rock art, though) in the area. It proves that several geoglyphs are directly related with the petroglyphs of Toro Muerto and also that they are located on ancient routes to and from the Majes Valley. Arequipa en el sur de Perú es muy rico en arte rupestre. Este estudio investiga la relación entre el Estilo del Arte Rupestre de Majes y los geoglifos (no una forma de arte rupestre) en el área. Demuestra que varios geoglifos están directamente relacionados con los petroglifos de Toro Muerto y también que están ubicados en las rutas antiguas desde y hacia el Valle de Majes.

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Valcamonica Symposium 2021

The CCSP-Centro Camuno di Studi Preistorici is organising the Valcamonica Symposium from 28 to 31 October 2021 at the Auditorium Cittadella Cultura, Capo di Ponte – Valcamonica (Italy). Deadline for submitting proposals of papers and posters is April 6, 2021. The VCS will take place in person or online through an IT platform.
Il Centro Camuno di Studi Preistorici organizza il Valcamonica Symposium dal 28 al 31 October 2021 presso l’Auditorium Cittadella Cultura, a Capo di Ponte (BS). Il termine per la presentazione di proposte di contributi e posters è fissato al 6 aprile 2021. Il Symposium si terrà in presenza o via web.

by CCSP Read more

Serrated Edges in Rock Art

Certain rock art images prove to occur at numerous places in the world, like cupules and zigzags. In most cases this is a matter of parallel invention. However, a number of motifs may have travelled across the globe for short or even enormous distances. This study investigates the distribution of one of the enigmatic rock art features, the serrated edge and explores the possibility that this practice diffused from North America to South America (or vice versa).

By Maarten van Hoek

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The Enigma of the “Feathered Homunculus”, Peru

Rock art images often include unexpected and enigmatic elements. This study investigates the petroglyphs of especially anthropomorphic figures in the Majes Valley of southern Peru that have an unanticipated feather-element; a long groove (sometimes slightly curved) with a row of parallel but shorter grooves attached to one side only. This study will describe the petroglyphs of the several types of biomorphs featuring a feather-element, focussing however on the “Feathered Homunculus”, as well as their surprisingly limited distribution.

By Maarten van Hoek

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Cervidi in Valcamonica e nelle Alpi

Cervids Valcamonica

Cervidi in Valcamonica e nelle Alpi, diversi approcci per una storia millenaria

giornata di studi giovedì 28 gennaio 2021 dalle ore 10

YouTube Footsteps of Man/Le Orme dell’Uomo https://bit.ly/3nLuV1M

Cervids in Valcamonica and in the Alps, different approaches to a millenary history

conference day Thursday 28 January 2021 from 10 am

YouTube Footsteps of Man-Le Orme dell’Uomo https://bit.ly/3nLuV1M

di Cer.Val Read more

Guardando i monti e i passi

Il sito di pitture rupestri delle valli ossolane conosciuto da lungo tempo è il riparo del Balm ’dla Vardaiola, posto all’interno del territorio del Parco Naturale dell’Alpe Veglia e dell’Alpe Devero. Le pitture rupestri sono state scoperte nel 1992 da Filippo M. Gambari e da Angelo Ghiretti.  La parete dipinta è stata recentemente riesaminata, con la produzione di vari corredi digitali: rilievo iconografico vettorializzato, panorama sferico a fotomosaico, riprese fotografiche a rielaborazione cromatica, modello 3D stereofotogrammetrico e tour virtuale.

Andrea ARCÀ, Angelo Eugenio FOSSATI, Francesco RUBAT BOREL Read more

Feline Petroglyphs in the Majes Valley, Peru

The Majes Valley of southern Peru is well-known for its enormous collection of petroglyphs. A significant diversity of animal species has been depicted on the relatively soft volcanic rocks of those sites. Images of felines are relatively scarce in the Majes Valley, yet they are unexpectedly numerous in absolute terms in the Central Majes Valley. In this study the image of the Majes feline and its graphical anomalies will be discussed, as well as the unexpected distribution pattern of feline imagery in the Majes Valley.

By Maarten van Hoek

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Wishes from Naquane Great Rock

Merry Christmas from Naquane Great Rock, Valcamonica

Merry Christmas from Naquane Great Rock – Valcamonica
www.europreart.net/NAQ1

by TRACCE – Online Rock Art Bulletin Read more