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The Case of Boulder AP3-060, Alto de Pitis, Majes Valley

My paper describes the images on a boulder that has one of the most complex biomorphic petroglyphs in the Majes Valley and in Arequipa rock art. It may well be death-related, as will be demonstrated. Another death-related petroglyph on an adjoining panel definitely links the boulder – and the whole site – with Apu Coropuna, the most Sacred Mountain of the whole of southern Peru.

By  Maarten van Hoek
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Rock Art at Torán, Majes Valley, Peru

The paper proves that even “minor” rock art sites can be most interesting, especially when placing such a “minor” site in a larger local and regional context. Torán is such an important “minor” site, as it is clearly connected with the two most important “major” rock art sites in the valley; Toro Muerto and Alto de Pitis.

By Maarten van Hoek

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Rock Art at Punta Colorada, Majes, Peru

The paper proves that even “minor” rock art sites can be most interesting, especially when placing such a “minor” site in a larger local and regional context. Punta Colorada is such an important “minor” site as it may well connect (graphically, literally and metaphorically) two most important “major” rock art sites in the valley. Additionally, the site of Punta Colorada also seems to establish the spiritual link between certain rock art icons and Apu Coropuna, the Sacred Mountain of southern Peru.

By Maarten van Hoek

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The Case of Boulder AP3-172, Majes, Peru

This paper describes a huge boulder at Alto de Pitis in the Majes Valley of southern Peru. It has some enigmatic petroglyphs that will be fully discussed. Especially one type of image is most idiosyncratic. It may depict or symbolise domestication of felines.

By Maarten van Hoek

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The Petroglyphs of Cerro San Diego, Peru

This paper describes the petroglyph site of Cerro San Diego, north of Lima. The site has a rather unusual location. Moreover, it has some exceptional petroglyphs, for instance a large purported “eye-motif” from the Andean Formative Period.

By Maarten van Hoek

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The Origin of the Cochineros Bird

It is very rare to find a unique rock art image repeated on ceramics or textiles from contemporaneous cultures. This study discusses the parallel between the unique petroglyph of a deliberately rotated bird image at Cochineros, a rock art site along the Río Mala, and compares the bird with similar images on ceramics and textiles of a surprisingly large coastal area.

By Maarten van Hoek

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A New Petroglyph Site in the Palpa Valley

The valley of the Río Palpa, tributary of the Río Grande drainage in the Department of Ica on the south coast of Peru, is very rich in rock art sites; all comprising petroglyphs. At this moment (July 2022) nine sites with petroglyphs had already been recorded (more information about rock art in the Palpa Valley is available in my book about Páracas rock art: Van Hoek 2021: Fig. 7

By Maarten van Hoek
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Music in Majes Valley Rock Art, Peru

This paper considers the role of music and sound possibly depicted in the rock art of the Central Majes Valley (southern Peru) in view of the Middle Horizon musical instruments found at La Real (and Uraca).

By Maarten van Hoek

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The Case of Boulder AP1-001, Alto de Pitis, Peru.

This paper investigates one enormous boulder with numerous petroglyphs at Alto de Pitis, a major rock art site in the Majes Valley of southern Peru. Two types of petroglyphs on this boulder are being described in more detail and discussed within the context of the rock art of the Majes Valley.

By Maarten van Hoek

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Quebrada de La Tuna – Southern Peru

Quebrada de La Tuna is a small, yet important petroglyph site in the Sihuas Valley of southern Peru. As early as 1977 Cuban archaeologist Antonio Núñez Jiménez visited the site and recorded several boulders with petroglyphs. This present study re-describes the site, offering updated information about the rock art (through a survey of 2008), also explaining the position of Núñez Jiménez.

By Maarten van Hoek

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The Mislaid Beringa Petroglyph

This study describes curious cases of “missing” information about petroglyphs reported (and recorded?) at the archaeological complex at Beringa in the Majes Valley of southern Peru. It was claimed (2007) by the leading excavator, Prof. Tiffiny Tung, that all petroglyphs were documented in 2001 and yet not a single illustration of the Beringa petroglyphs is available. Why? This study tries to answer that question, also by placing the issue in a broader context by adding a revealing Addendum.

 By Maarten van Hoek Read more

Vandalism and Falsification of Rock Art

Especially in this time of a dangerously increasing amount of online (deep) fake-news, outrageous lies, falsified photos and misleading information that are used to – for instance – “justify” a disgusting and horrible war in Europe, it should not be tolerated that similar falsifications are being used in scientific publications by academic professionals. In the following two publications I expose and criticize some of those falsifications in rock art publications, focusing on the Majes Falsification. Updated 24 July 2022.

By Maarten van Hoek

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Los Petroglifos de Pariacha, Perú

This study describes a little-known rock art site located on very high ground between the rivers Rímac and Lurín, a short distance inland from the capital of Perú, Lima. It has been reported for the first time in 2014. At least 25 boulders with petroglyphs have been discussed in this study.

Este estudio describe un sitio de arte rupestre poco conocido ubicado en un terreno muy alto entre los ríos Rímac y Lurín, a poca distancia tierra adentro de la capital del Perú, Lima. Se informó por primera vez en 2014. En este estudio se han discutido al menos 25 rocas con petroglifos.

By Van Hoek and Cárdenas

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Los Petroglifos de Purunhuasi, Perú

Report describing a hitherto undescribed rock art site ENE of Lima, Peru. Simple petroglyphs of quadrupeds (camelids?) and abstract motifs predominate, but there is at least one interesting zoomorphic image as well.

Informe que describe un sitio de arte rupestre hasta ahora no descrito ENE de Lima, Perú. Predominan los petroglifos simples de cuadrúpedos (¿camélidos?) y motivos abstractos, pero también hay al menos una imagen zoomorfa interesante.

By Maarten van Hoek and Gustavo Cárdenas

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Vítor Valley Rock Art Sites: Tacar

The coastal areas of the Department of Arequipa in southern Peru are very rich in rock art. Most of the rock art sites are found along or very near river valleys. One of those river valleys that is rich in rock art is the valley of the Río Vítor. In this study the rock art in the stretch of river between the confluence with the Río Yura in the north of the Vítor-Chili drainage and the confluence with the Río Sihuas, further downstream, will be discussed.

By Maarten van Hoek

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The Rock Art Site of La Laja – Peru

La Laja is a major rock art concentration on a large outcrop wall high above the Majes River valley in southern Peru. This article describes the many rock art images at La Laja and attempts at a tentative chronology. Most of the imagery belongs to the Majes Rock Art Style (see Van hoek 2018 for more information), although several images are later.

By Maarten van Hoek

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The Petroglyphs of Cuesta de la Pachana and Miraflores

It is known for more than 80 years that the Manga drainage in southern Peru houses one of the most important rock art sites in this part of the Andes (Illomas). However, apart from Illomas there are a number of smaller, yet important rock art sites in this valley. This study discusses two sites in the Manga Valley that were provisionally recorded in 2018 by the Upper Manga Archaeological Survey Project (University of Toronto, Department of Anthropology, Royal Ontario Museum, Canada). It concerns Cuesta de la Pachana and Miraflores-Pachana.

By Maarten van Hoek

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Il Ciappo di Varegina – Finale Ligure

Ai tre famosi affioramenti rocciosi tendenzialmente pianeggianti di Pietra di Finale, localmente noti col termine dialettale di ciappi presenti nel Finalese, noti per le incisioni rupestri, viene ad aggiungersene un quarto, forse non esteso come gli altri, ma comunque assai interessante, individuato e documentato nella primavera 2021: il Ciappo di Varegina; su di una superficie complessiva di circa 55 mq sono visibili almeno 45 tra coppelle e vaschette (pdf disponibile).

Antonio NARICE Read more

The Status of Sector-X – Toro Muerto, Peru

Toro Muerto es el sitio de arte rupestre más grande de los Andes, conocido desde 1953. En 2018, un equipo de investigación polaco-peruano inició el Proyecto de Investigación Arqueológica – Toro Muerto (PIA-TM) e inspeccionó una parte informada anteriormente, pero no inspeccionada en el extremo norte del sitio. Se llamaba Sector-X. Este estudio intenta analizar el arte rupestre del Sector-X considerando especialmente el estado del Sector-X dentro del Complejo de Arte Rupestre de Toro Muerto. Para lograr esto, mi estudio se enfoca principalmente en la ocurrencia y distribución de un petroglifo de un ave específico que es exclusivo del Valle Central de Majes en el sur de Perú.

By Maarten van Hoek

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Why Selecting Mollebaya Chico ?

This paper again demonstrates that in the area of the Majes Rock Art Style (Arequipa; southern Peru) many sites are firmly and ritually connected with at least one of the Sacred Mountains (the Apus) of the area. Those volcanoes play an important role in selecting spots for rock art production. Mollebaya Chico is one of those sites.

By Maarten van Hoek

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The Rock Art of La Caldera, Southern Peru

This paper again demonstrates that in the area of the Majes Rock Art Style (Arequipa; southern Peru) many sites are firmly and ritually connected with at least one of the Sacred Mountains (the Apus) of the area. Those volcanoes play an important role in selecting spots for rock art production. La Caldera is one of those sites.

By Maarten van Hoek

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Updating the Rock Art near Huaca Blanca, Peru

Many rock art sites are easily destroyed, also in Peru, especially because of road constructions or mining activities. This paper describes three petroglyph sites near the village of Huaca Blanca in northern Peru. Especially Huaca Blanca has already been partially destroyed by unwanted quarrying. This paper offers a brief inventory of what is (was!) available during our surveys. The thumbnail to the right shows a prehistoric petroglyph next to recent damage.

By Maarten van Hoek

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Palamenco and the Shooting Male

Palamenco is a petroglyph site in the coastal area of Northern Peru. It has some special images, including an image of what I interpreted as a “shooting male”. This petroglyph is unique for Palamenco and possibly for Latin America as well. It is compared with more or less similar examples around the world.

By Maarten van Hoek

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Valcamonica Rock Art Fieldwork 2021

The Footsteps of Man Archaeological Cooperative Society is based in Valcamonica, an Alpine valley in Northern Italy, where rock art constitutes an archaeological, artistic, ethnographic and historical patrimony of inestimable value (UNESCO World Heritage List). In collaboration with the Catholic University of Brescia, Footsteps of Man organizes its annual Valcamonica Rock Art & Archaeology Field School in Paspardo, one of the principal area where engravings are concentrated. The project participants will learn how
to survey, clean, photograph, draw and catalogue the rock engravings at sites around Paspardo. During the field season, visits to the major rock art parks and museums in Valcamonica will be organized.

by Angelo Eugenio Fossati

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Valcamonica Symposium 2021

The CCSP-Centro Camuno di Studi Preistorici is organising the Valcamonica Symposium from 28 to 31 October 2021 at the Auditorium Cittadella Cultura, Capo di Ponte – Valcamonica (Italy). Deadline for submitting proposals of papers and posters is April 6, 2021. The VCS will take place in person or online through an IT platform.
Il Centro Camuno di Studi Preistorici organizza il Valcamonica Symposium dal 28 al 31 October 2021 presso l’Auditorium Cittadella Cultura, a Capo di Ponte (BS). Il termine per la presentazione di proposte di contributi e posters è fissato al 6 aprile 2021. Il Symposium si terrà in presenza o via web.

by CCSP Read more

The Enigma of the “Feathered Homunculus”, Peru

Rock art images often include unexpected and enigmatic elements. This study investigates the petroglyphs of especially anthropomorphic figures in the Majes Valley of southern Peru that have an unanticipated feather-element; a long groove (sometimes slightly curved) with a row of parallel but shorter grooves attached to one side only. This study will describe the petroglyphs of the several types of biomorphs featuring a feather-element, focussing however on the “Feathered Homunculus”, as well as their surprisingly limited distribution.

By Maarten van Hoek

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Cervidi in Valcamonica e nelle Alpi

Cervids Valcamonica

Cervidi in Valcamonica e nelle Alpi, diversi approcci per una storia millenaria

giornata di studi giovedì 28 gennaio 2021 dalle ore 10

YouTube Footsteps of Man/Le Orme dell’Uomo https://bit.ly/3nLuV1M

Cervids in Valcamonica and in the Alps, different approaches to a millenary history

conference day Thursday 28 January 2021 from 10 am

YouTube Footsteps of Man-Le Orme dell’Uomo https://bit.ly/3nLuV1M

di Cer.Val Read more

Guardando i monti e i passi

Il sito di pitture rupestri delle valli ossolane conosciuto da lungo tempo è il riparo del Balm ’dla Vardaiola, posto all’interno del territorio del Parco Naturale dell’Alpe Veglia e dell’Alpe Devero. Le pitture rupestri sono state scoperte nel 1992 da Filippo M. Gambari e da Angelo Ghiretti.  La parete dipinta è stata recentemente riesaminata, con la produzione di vari corredi digitali: rilievo iconografico vettorializzato, panorama sferico a fotomosaico, riprese fotografiche a rielaborazione cromatica, modello 3D stereofotogrammetrico e tour virtuale.

Andrea ARCÀ, Angelo Eugenio FOSSATI, Francesco RUBAT BOREL Read more

L’Antece degli Alburni, condottiero o divinità?

L’Antéce

A 1125 m di quota, sulla sommità di Costa Palomba, monti Alburni e Parco Nazionale del Cilento, un non comune monumento rupestre domina un ampio panorama a 360°, che spazia dall’entroterra al mare, sino all’isola di Capri nelle giornate più limpide. Si tratta dell’Antéce, secondo alcuni “l’Antico”, un altorilievo rupestre ricavato da un lastrone naturale, un aguzzo spunzone calcareo. La figura umana, a grandezza naturale, impugna con la destra una lancia, o un’insegna, alla quale è poggiato uno scudo rotondo a profilo leggermente spiovente dotato di umbone fusiforme; nell’altra mano impugna un oggetto allungato, eroso e lacunoso, che può fare ipotizzare la presenza di una folgore o di un fascio di folgori (PDF disponibile).

di Andrea ARCÀ, Oriana BOZZARELLI Read more

Guardando i monti e i passi

Il sito di pitture rupestri delle valli ossolane conosciuto da lungo tempo è il riparo del Balm ’dla Vardaiola, posto all’interno del territorio del Parco Naturale dell’Alpe Veglia e dell’Alpe Devero. Le pitture rupestri sono state scoperte nel 1992 da Filippo M. Gambari e da Angelo Ghiretti.  La parete dipinta è stata recentemente riesaminata, con la produzione di vari corredi digitali: rilievo iconografico vettorializzato, panorama sferico a fotomosaico, riprese fotografiche a rielaborazione cromatica, modello 3D stereofotogrammetrico e tour virtuale.

Andrea ARCÀ, Angelo Eugenio FOSSATI, Francesco RUBAT BOREL Read more

Feline Petroglyphs in the Majes Valley, Peru

The Majes Valley of southern Peru is well-known for its enormous collection of petroglyphs. A significant diversity of animal species has been depicted on the relatively soft volcanic rocks of those sites. Images of felines are relatively scarce in the Majes Valley, yet they are unexpectedly numerous in absolute terms in the Central Majes Valley. In this study the image of the Majes feline and its graphical anomalies will be discussed, as well as the unexpected distribution pattern of feline imagery in the Majes Valley.

By Maarten van Hoek

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Wishes from Naquane Great Rock

Merry Christmas from Naquane Great Rock, Valcamonica

Merry Christmas from Naquane Great Rock – Valcamonica
www.europreart.net/NAQ1

by TRACCE – Online Rock Art Bulletin Read more

L’Antece degli Alburni, condottiero o divinità?

L’Antéce

A 1125 m di quota, sulla sommità di Costa Palomba, monti Alburni e Parco Nazionale del Cilento, un non comune monumento rupestre domina un ampio panorama a 360°, che spazia dall’entroterra al mare, sino all’isola di Capri nelle giornate più limpide. Si tratta dell’Antéce, secondo alcuni “l’Antico”, un altorilievo rupestre ricavato da un lastrone naturale, un aguzzo spunzone calcareo. La figura umana, a grandezza naturale, impugna con la destra una lancia, o un’insegna, alla quale è poggiato uno scudo rotondo a profilo leggermente spiovente dotato di umbone fusiforme; nell’altra mano impugna un oggetto allungato, eroso e lacunoso, che può fare ipotizzare la presenza di una folgore o di un fascio di folgori (PDF disponibile).

di Andrea ARCÀ, Oriana BOZZARELLI Read more

Progetto Cer.Val. – Cervidi della Valcamonica

NAQ1, sett. i

Uno dei temi peculiari dell’arte rupestre della Valcamonica è senza dubbio quello dei cervi. Le due più antiche raffigurazioni di cervo risalgono alla fine del Pleistocene, mentre sono frequenti quelle presenti sulle stele dell’età del Rame, e ancora di più quelle relative all’età del Ferro. Il progetto Cer.Val., sostenuto dal Gruppo Terre Alte del CAI (Club Alpino Italiano), vuole affrontare questo percorso di ricerca, privilegiando la multidisciplinarietà, l’incontro tra specialisti di diversi campi, il rapporto con i cambiamenti climatico-ambientali, l’analisi del simbolo del cervo nel patrimonio culturale locale.

di Dario SIGARI Read more

New “Carcancha” Petroglyphs in Arequipa, Peru

This paper presents the description of two new sites in Majes, Peru, both featuring an example of a skeleton-like petroglyph that may spiritually be linked with the Sacred Mountain of Coropuna. The documentation of those two new sites thus reveals new information about the symbolic spatial organization and ritual functions of the “Death Valley of the Andes”. It is especially hypothesized here that the specific setting of those two new sites may indicate a physical “Road to Coropuna”.

 By Maarten van Hoek Read more

Filippo Gambari, archeologia e arte rupestre

Filippo Maria Gambari

Giovedì 19 novembre 2020 Filippo Maria Gambari, archeologo preistorico, direttore del Museo delle Civiltà di Roma,  ha lasciato questo mondo. Nel corso della sua vita di studioso ha approfondito vari aspetti della scienza archeologica: sono molti i luoghi e i temi della preistoria alpina (e non solo) che grazie alla sua progettualità e al suo impulso sono stati affrontati con grande attenzione. Tra questi, il tema dell’arte rupestre ha assunto un ruolo non certo di secondo piano. E’ doveroso ricordare lo studioso in queste pagine, che proprio all’arte rupestre sono dedicate.

AA-DD-AEF-PL Read more

False Information Concerning Majes Rock Art, Peru

Scientific publications should always be reliable. The content may never be incorrect or misleading. This also goes for publications regarding rock art, whether by amateurs or by academics. This short paper deals with two photographs of petroglyphs from the Majes Valley, southern Peru, and the conclusions based upon those illustrations published by two academics from the USA. Regrettably, both the photos and the conclusions are unambiguously incorrect.

By Maarten van Hoek

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L’arte rupestre schematica del Riparo Ranaldi

Il Riparo Ranaldi, in località Serra Pisconi, prende nome dal suo scopritore, Francesco Ranaldi, archeologo e direttore del Museo Archeologico Provinciale di Potenza dal 1954 al 1988. Il sito si raggiunge attraverso un comodo sentiero attrezzato. È stato realizzato un eccellente allestimento museale all’aria aperta, che permette un facile accesso mediante una gradevole camminata di una ventina di minuti. il quadro cronologico e interpretativo delle pitture rupestri del Riparo Ranaldi segue due percorsi differenziati: da una parte una raffigurazione mesolitica di un branco di cervi nel bosco e dall’altra, più probabilmente, una scena di caccia neolitica in stile schematico (PDF disponibile).

di Andrea ARCÀ, Oriana BOZZARELLI Read more

TRACCE Online Rock Art Bulletin 46 – October 2020

# 46 – October 2020

TRACCE Online Rock Art Bulletin 46

––––––––––––––––––> by Footsteps of Man
edited by Le Orme dell’Uomo (Valcamonica – I)

46: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

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Les cavaliers dans l’art rupestre. Le cas du Maroc

Foum Chenna, Maroc

Dans tous les pays du Maghreb et du Sahara, en plein air ou sous abri, on peut rencontrer une petite figure, gravée ou peinte, connue dans la littérature spécialisée ou de divulgation sous l’appellation de cavalier “libyco-berbère”. Puisque cette image est très répandue, il semble qu’elle n’ait pas de secret et que du cavalier tout soit connu : son armement, le harnais de sa monture, jusqu’à son rôle dans la société de l’époque. Rien de plus faux. Au Maroc, nous pouvons observer combien le monde des cavaliers était diversifié en visitant les deux gisements principaux : le site de Foum Chenna dans la vallée du Draa (Maroc méridional) et le plateau aux pieds du Jebel Rat, dans le Haut Atlas central, le premier abritant 2550 gravures, le deuxième 1800 dont 800 appartiennent à la phase des cavaliers (pdf disponible).
.

par Alessandra BRAVIN Read more

Valcamonica, visit the Great Rock !

NAQ1 virtual tour door

October 9, 2020: on the occasion of the European Day of Rock Art it is a real pleasure to invite enthusiasts and scholars to visit the Great Rock of Naquane in Valcamonica and to surf over it. Just find the door, open it with a click, and enter the virtual tour. The Great Rock is the most richly engraved of the Park. You can move along the wooden walkways just as if you were doing a real visit: you can closely observe the surface, discover every detail, navigate by moving like a bird’s eye, approaching and moving away at will. So, feel comfortable in your home, and start your virtual journey inside Naquane and Valcamonica rock art (PDF available).

by Andrea ARCÀ Read more

Valcamonica, visita la Grande Roccia !

NAQ1, la porta del tour virtuale

In occasione del 9 ottobre, Giornata Europea dell’Arte Rupestre, è un vero piacere invitare gli appassionati e gli studiosi di arte rupestre a visitare la Grande Roccia di Naquane e a navigare lungo la sua superficie incisa. Basta trovare la porticina, aprirla con un click ed immergersi nel tour virtuale. La Grande Roccia è la più riccamente istoriata di tutto il Parco di Naquane. Puoi muoverti lungo le passerelle di legno come se tu la stessi visitando dal vivo, osservare da vicino le scene e le figure preistoriche, scoprire ogni dettaglio, navigare tra i settori incisi muovendoti a volo d’uccello, avvicinandoti e allontanandoti a volontà. E dunque, stai comodo a casa tua e inizia il tuo viaggio a Naquane, immergendoti nell’arte rupestre della Valcamonica (PDF disponibile).

di Andrea ARCÀ Read more

Naquane, Valcamonica, the Great Rock

NAQ1 deer figure

(October 9, 2020, European Day of Rock Art). With its 104 engraved rocks, the National Rock Art Park of Naquane is the main archaeological site of Valcamonica and one of the most important European rock art sites. The best-known rock is the n. 1, called the Great Rock for its size; more than two thousand figures have been engraved over its surface: deer hunting scenes, acrobatic riders, sword duels, women with hands up, wooden barns, ducks, geese and chickens, the mysterious palettes … a virtual tour allow to discover it, to enjoy the panorama, to fly over its engraved figures looking at ultra high-res pictures, tracings and 3D models (PDF available).

by Andrea ARCÀ Read more

Naquane, Valcamonica, la Grande Roccia

NAQ1, settore P

(9 ottobre 2020, Giornata Europea dell’Arte Rupestre). Con le sue 104 rocce incise, il Parco Nazionale delle Incisioni Rupestri di Naquane costituisce il principale sito archeologico della Valcamonica e uno dei più importanti complessi europei di arte rupestre. La roccia più conosciuta è la n. 1, nota anche come Grande Roccia per le sue dimensioni; sulla sua superficie sono state incise più di 2mila figure: scene di caccia al cervo, di cavalcatura acrobatica, duelli alla spada, donne a braccia levate, granai di legno, oche, papere e galline, le misteriose palette …  un tour virtuale permette di scoprirla, di godere della vista del panorama, di sorvolare le sue figure incise osservando  riprese fotografiche, rilievi iconografici e modelli 3D ad altissima risoluzione (PDF disponibile).

di Andrea ARCÀ Read more

L’arte rupestre della Valcamonica in 20 minuti

Valcamonica 20 minutes

Il progetto L’arte rupestre della Valcamonica in 20 minuti, ideato e organizzato da Le Orme dell’Uomo (Cerveno, Valcamonica), intende presentare in modo facile e descrittivo l’arte rupestre della Valcamonica attraverso una serie di video di semplici lezioni, conferenze e attività didattiche, della durata di circa 20 minuti ciascuna, tenute online da esperti archeologi, studiosi del settore e insegnanti. I video si articolano in tre differenti settori: cronologia (lezioni e conferenze sulle varie fasi dell’arte rupestre della Valcamonica), temi e visite virtuali (quali la rosa camuna, le impronte di piede, i telai, le palette, le rocce e i siti di maggiore interesse), didattica (con una sezione dedicata).

di Angelo Eugenio FOSSATI, Marisa D. GIORGI Read more

Valcamonica rock art in 20 minutes

Valcamonica 20 minutes

The project  Valcamonica Rock Art in 20 minutes, conceived and organized by Footsteps of Man (Cerveno, Valcamonica), intends to present the rock art of Valcamonica in an easy and descriptive way through simple lessons, conferences, and didactic activities lasting about 20 minutes, each held online by expert archaeologists, scholars in the field, and teachers. The videos are divided into three different sectors: chronology (lectures-lessons on the various periods of the rock art of Valcamonica), themes, and virtual visits (such as Camunnian roses, footprints, looms, palettes, or the most important engraved rocks), education (with a special section).

by Angelo Eugenio FOSSATI, Marisa D. GIORGI Read more

Defecating Elephants in Messak Rock Art – An Anomaly?

In this paper I discuss the graphical displays of a natural bodily function that is, although – from top to bottom – normal in the natural world, very rare in rock art. It concerns images of defecating elephants, which – enigmatically – occur well above average in the Messak-Tadrart region of the Central Sahara. It will be attempted to explain this anomaly (PDF available).

By Maarten van Hoek

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