Tag Archive for petroglifos

El Arte Rupestre del Valle de Huarmey

La franja costera extremadamente seca al oeste de los Andes es muy rica en arte rupestre. Sin embargo, la distribución es bastante desigual. Algunos valles tienen una plétora de arte rupestre, como el valle de Reque-Chancay al este de Chiclayo, mientras que otros valles tienen solo unos pocos sitios con una modesta variedad de imágenes de arte rupestre. Uno de esos valles es el valle del río Huarmey. Este artículo presenta una revisión de los seis sitios con arte rupestre de este valle, escrito con la muy apreciada colaboración de Gustavo Cárdenas Huachaca (Perú).

Por Maarten van Hoek y Gustavo Cárdenas

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Vítor Valley Rock Art Sites: Tacar

The coastal areas of the Department of Arequipa in southern Peru are very rich in rock art. Most of the rock art sites are found along or very near river valleys. One of those river valleys that is rich in rock art is the valley of the Río Vítor. In this study the rock art in the stretch of river between the confluence with the Río Yura in the north of the Vítor-Chili drainage and the confluence with the Río Sihuas, further downstream, will be discussed.

By Maarten van Hoek

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The Rock Art Site of La Laja – Peru

La Laja is a major rock art concentration on a large outcrop wall high above the Majes River valley in southern Peru. This article describes the many rock art images at La Laja and attempts at a tentative chronology. Most of the imagery belongs to the Majes Rock Art Style (see Van hoek 2018 for more information), although several images are later.

By Maarten van Hoek

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The Petroglyphs of Cuesta de la Pachana and Miraflores

It is known for more than 80 years that the Manga drainage in southern Peru houses one of the most important rock art sites in this part of the Andes (Illomas). However, apart from Illomas there are a number of smaller, yet important rock art sites in this valley. This study discusses two sites in the Manga Valley that were provisionally recorded in 2018 by the Upper Manga Archaeological Survey Project (University of Toronto, Department of Anthropology, Royal Ontario Museum, Canada). It concerns Cuesta de la Pachana and Miraflores-Pachana.

By Maarten van Hoek

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The Status of Sector-X – Toro Muerto, Peru

Toro Muerto es el sitio de arte rupestre más grande de los Andes, conocido desde 1953. En 2018, un equipo de investigación polaco-peruano inició el Proyecto de Investigación Arqueológica – Toro Muerto (PIA-TM) e inspeccionó una parte informada anteriormente, pero no inspeccionada en el extremo norte del sitio. Se llamaba Sector-X. Este estudio intenta analizar el arte rupestre del Sector-X considerando especialmente el estado del Sector-X dentro del Complejo de Arte Rupestre de Toro Muerto. Para lograr esto, mi estudio se enfoca principalmente en la ocurrencia y distribución de un petroglifo de un ave específico que es exclusivo del Valle Central de Majes en el sur de Perú.

By Maarten van Hoek

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Why Selecting Mollebaya Chico ?

This paper again demonstrates that in the area of the Majes Rock Art Style (Arequipa; southern Peru) many sites are firmly and ritually connected with at least one of the Sacred Mountains (the Apus) of the area. Those volcanoes play an important role in selecting spots for rock art production. Mollebaya Chico is one of those sites.

By Maarten van Hoek

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The Rock Art of La Caldera, Southern Peru

This paper again demonstrates that in the area of the Majes Rock Art Style (Arequipa; southern Peru) many sites are firmly and ritually connected with at least one of the Sacred Mountains (the Apus) of the area. Those volcanoes play an important role in selecting spots for rock art production. La Caldera is one of those sites.

By Maarten van Hoek

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Updating the Rock Art near Huaca Blanca, Peru

Many rock art sites are easily destroyed, also in Peru, especially because of road constructions or mining activities. This paper describes three petroglyph sites near the village of Huaca Blanca in northern Peru. Especially Huaca Blanca has already been partially destroyed by unwanted quarrying. This paper offers a brief inventory of what is (was!) available during our surveys. The thumbnail to the right shows a prehistoric petroglyph next to recent damage.

By Maarten van Hoek

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Palamenco and the Shooting Male

Palamenco is a petroglyph site in the coastal area of Northern Peru. It has some special images, including an image of what I interpreted as a “shooting male”. This petroglyph is unique for Palamenco and possibly for Latin America as well. It is compared with more or less similar examples around the world.

By Maarten van Hoek

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Petroglyphs and a New Geoglyph in the Sama Valley

The Sama Valley in southern Peru has only a few rock art sites. This article describes one of those sites, which is located at Coropuro on the south bank of the river. It has a interesting collection of petroglyphs, some of which might be linked to a previously unnoticed geoglyph nearby.

By Maarten van Hoek

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The Cíceras “Carcancha-Bird” Petroglyphs – Majes, Peru

The Majes drainage in southern Peru boasts the largest collection of rock art in the Andes, especially because of the abundance of petroglyphs at the Toro Muerto and Alto de Pitis. Importantly, both sites have numerous bird petroglyphs of different types. Yet there are other sites in the Majes drainage that also have idiosyncratic bird imagery. One of those sites is Cíceras, which is the subject of this study. I focus on a specific type of bird petroglyphs, for which I tentatively suggest that they have a special transcendent proficiency.

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War and Weapons in Majes Style Rock Art?

This study investigates the possibility whether rock art images in the Majes Valley of southern Peru indeed depict weapons or conflicts between humans. The bio-archaeological excavations and research at Uraca (Majes Valley) by Beth Scaffidi and Tiffiny Tung  suggest that the rock art of especially neighbouring Toro Muerto conveys a preoccupation with violence (Scaffidi and Tung 2020). However, the current study demonstrates that there is not any proof or any convincing graphical context confirming “violent events in nearby petroglyphs”.

By Maarten van Hoek

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Contextualising the Geoglyph of Huacán, southern Peru

Arequipa in southern Peru is very rich in rock art. This study investigates the relationship between the Majes Rock Art Style and the geoglyphs (not a form of rock art, though) in the area. It proves that several geoglyphs are directly related with the petroglyphs of Toro Muerto and also that they are located on ancient routes to and from the Majes Valley. Arequipa en el sur de Perú es muy rico en arte rupestre. Este estudio investiga la relación entre el Estilo del Arte Rupestre de Majes y los geoglifos (no una forma de arte rupestre) en el área. Demuestra que varios geoglifos están directamente relacionados con los petroglifos de Toro Muerto y también que están ubicados en las rutas antiguas desde y hacia el Valle de Majes.

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The Enigma of the “Feathered Homunculus”, Peru

Rock art images often include unexpected and enigmatic elements. This study investigates the petroglyphs of especially anthropomorphic figures in the Majes Valley of southern Peru that have an unanticipated feather-element; a long groove (sometimes slightly curved) with a row of parallel but shorter grooves attached to one side only. This study will describe the petroglyphs of the several types of biomorphs featuring a feather-element, focussing however on the “Feathered Homunculus”, as well as their surprisingly limited distribution.

By Maarten van Hoek

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Enfrentando los dibujos… ¡otra vez! (Perú)

With great interest I have watched the YouTube Video called: Charla Rupestre: Los Petroglifos de Chillihuay. Arequipa, Perú by Maritza Rodríguez Cerrón and Daniel Chumpitaz Llerena (21 August 2020), two leading Peruvian archaeologists who have intensively surveyed the important rock art site of Chillihuay in southern Peru. However, a couple of those drawings in their 2014-paper drew my attention, as they proved to be incorrect  (PDF available).

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The Incomplete Versus The Unfinished

Only the manufacturer of a rock art image could reliably have informed us whether a rock art image is unfinished or whether it is incomplete. Unfortunately informed knowledge is often completely unavailable. Then only the image and its graphical and cultural context are available to possibly separate the unfinished from the incomplete. Additionally, the incomplete image may even include something invisible. To address these issues I will use the rich rock art repertoire of the Desert Andes, focussing mainly on Toro Muerto and Miculla, two enormous rock art sites in the south of Peru.

By Maarten van Hoek

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The Cupules of the Imaoun Complex, Southern Morocco

In the area just south of the Anti-Atlas numerous rock art sites have been recorded. However, there are remarkably few rock art panels with cupules in that area. This study describes a surprisingly high number of cupule panels in the Imaoun area, north of the town of Akka in southern Morocco, which represents a true anomaly in this respect.

By Maarten van Hoek

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The Saluting Anthropomorph in the Rock Art of the Americas

Although in general complex biomorphic figures in rock art are not suitable to demonstrate diffusion, there is one idiosyncratic anthropomorphic figure the in rock art repertoire of the Americas, which, although it is very rare, has a remarkably wide distribution that might indicate long-distance diffusion. I have labelled this icon the Saluting Anthropomorph. See the UPDATE at the end of the paper.

 By Maarten van Hoek Read more