Tag Archive for rock art

Valcamonica rock art in 20 minutes

Valcamonica 20 minutes

The project  Valcamonica Rock Art in 20 minutes, conceived and organized by Footsteps of Man (Cerveno, Valcamonica), intends to present the rock art of Valcamonica in an easy and descriptive way through simple lessons, conferences, and didactic activities lasting about 20 minutes, each held online by expert archaeologists, scholars in the field, and teachers. The videos are divided into three different sectors: chronology (lectures-lessons on the various periods of the rock art of Valcamonica), themes, and virtual visits (such as Camunnian roses, footprints, looms, palettes, or the most important engraved rocks), education (with a special section).

by Angelo Eugenio FOSSATI, Marisa D. GIORGI Read more

Defecating Elephants in Messak Rock Art – An Anomaly?

In this paper I discuss the graphical displays of a natural bodily function that is, although – from top to bottom – normal in the natural world, very rare in rock art. It concerns images of defecating elephants, which – enigmatically – occur well above average in the Messak-Tadrart region of the Central Sahara. It will be attempted to explain this anomaly.

By Maarten van Hoek

Read more

The Three Rivers 3D Masks

In several cases rock art manufacturers were intrigued by natural rock features such as holes and cracks. This paper deals mainly with rock art images of masks that are folded across two rock panels creating 3D masks. In particular the Mogollon 3D masks of Three Rivers in New Mexico, USA, will be discussed. Also the puzzling anomaly regarding the distribution of Mogollon 3D masks and Rio Grande Style 3D masks will be dealt with. Finally, it will be attempted to offer an explanation for the enigmatic 3D masks.

By Maarten van Hoek

Read more

Valcamonica Rock Art Fieldwork 2020

The Footsteps of Man Archaeological Cooperative Society is based in Valcamonica, an Alpine valley in Northern Italy, where rock art constitutes an archaeological, artistic, ethnographic and historical patrimony of inestimable value (UNESCO World Heritage List). In collaboration with the Catholic University of Brescia, Footsteps of Man organizes its annual Valcamonica Rock Art & Archaeology Field School in Paspardo, one of the principal area where engravings are concentrated. The project participants will learn how
to survey, clean, photograph, draw and catalogue the rock engravings at sites around Paspardo. During the field season, visits to the major rock art parks and museums in Valcamonica will be organized.

by Angelo Eugenio Fossati

Read more

A ‘Unique’ Petroglyph Scene in Southern Morocco

Mating scenes involving mammals of the same species are rather rare in global rock art, but surprisingly fighting scenes are even more extraordinary. This study discusses a specific petroglyph panel in the south of Morocco where – in my opinion uniquely – a fighting and a mating scene was recorded by us in 2019. This panel is analysed and put into a wider context.

By Maarten van Hoek

Read more

Enigmatic Configurations in Arequipa Rock Art, Peru

The rock art of Arequipa (southern Peru) is characterised by several idiosyncratic images, like ‘Dancers’. However, also rather simple elements form rare and uncommon configurations that are composed of grooves, arcs of dots and crosses that are hovering over or are emanating from zoomorphic petroglyphs, yet intimately associated. Similar configurations prove to be very rare in global rock art.

By Maarten van Hoek Read more

The Incomplete Versus The Unfinished

Only the manufacturer of a rock art image could reliably have informed us whether a rock art image is unfinished or whether it is incomplete. Unfortunately informed knowledge is often completely unavailable. Then only the image and its graphical and cultural context are available to possibly separate the unfinished from the incomplete. Additionally, the incomplete image may even include something invisible. To address these issues I will use the rich rock art repertoire of the Desert Andes, focussing mainly on Toro Muerto and Miculla, two enormous rock art sites in the south of Peru.

By Maarten van Hoek

Read more

The Cupules of the Imaoun Complex, Southern Morocco

In the area just south of the Anti-Atlas numerous rock art sites have been recorded. However, there are remarkably few rock art panels with cupules in that area. This study describes a surprisingly high number of cupule panels in the Imaoun area, north of the town of Akka in southern Morocco, which represents a true anomaly in this respect.

By Maarten van Hoek

Read more

The Saluting Anthropomorph in the Rock Art of the Americas

Although in general complex biomorphic figures in rock art are not suitable to demonstrate diffusion, there is one idiosyncratic anthropomorphic figure the in rock art repertoire of the Americas, which, although it is very rare, has a remarkably wide distribution that might indicate long-distance diffusion. I have labelled this icon the Saluting Anthropomorph. See the UPDATE at the end of the paper.

 By Maarten van Hoek Read more

Long Distance Diffusion of Rock Art Motifs in the Americas

Rock art motifs are found in every inhabited continent. In most cases those motifs develop independently, but it is also certain that specific rock art motifs migrated from one area to another area, sometimes travelling for thousands of kilometres. This study investigates the possible long-distance diffusion of a number of abstract rock art motifs along the Pacific seaboard of the Americas.

 By Maarten van Hoek Read more

Indifferent Obliteration of Petroglyph Art

Petroglyphs are often found superimposed by other petroglyphs, but in some cases they have also been (partially) obliterated by hammering, rubbing or polishing of the rock’s surface. This short study investigates a number of cases in North and South America where petroglyphs may have (and in some cases definitely have) been obliterated by such grinding activities. This study therefore strongly recommend to accurately record instances where grinding activities took place, even when there are no petroglyphs visible.

By Maarten van Hoek

Read more

The ‘Trophy-Bird’ of Alto de Pitis

This paper provides a few examples of petroglyphs that have drastically been transformed by later rock art manufacturers. However, it focuses on one specific petroglyph, which is found at Alto de Pitis in the Majes Valley of southern Peru; aptly called ‘The Death Valley of the Andes’. In this paper I tentatively argue that the unique ‘Trophy-Bird’ petroglyph of Alto de Pitis initially started off as a ‘trophy’ head, which was later intentionally transformed to symbolise the Supernatural Flight of the Dead towards Apu Coropuna, the Sacred Mountain of the area.

by Maarten van Hoek

Read more

Una Actualización del Arte Rupestre del Cerro la Puntilla, Perú

Este artículo trata sobre el sitio de arte rupestre de La Puntilla en el norte de Perú. Aunque pasé este sitio muchas veces no lo he visitado. Sin embargo, el sitio tiene varios paneles muy interesantes con petroglifos – todos reportados por primera vez por el arqueólogo aficionado local, Francisco Gregorio Díaz Núñez – que serán discutidos en este artículo.

Read more

Una Actualización del Arte Rupestre de Chumbenique – Perú

 

En 2016 visitamos por primera vez el sitio de arte rupestre de Chumbenique en el Valle de Zaña en el norte de Perú. Con base en nuestras investigaciones publiqué un artículo preliminar sobre los petroglifos de Chumbenique (Van Hoek 2016a). En mi artículo de 2016 mencioné que registramos 32 bloques con petroglifos . Sin embargo, volvimos a Chumbenique en septiembre de 2017 para una investigación más exhaustiva y pudimos agregar 21 rocas con petroglifos más. De ahí esta actualización.

Read more

Una Actualización del Arte Rupestre de Mayasgo-1 (Perú)

En noviembre 2016 Daniel Castillo Benítez y María Susana Barrau informaron sobre el sitio de arte rupestre de Mayasgo-1 en el Valle de Carabamba en el norte de Perú. En septiembre de 2017 investigué el mismo sitio y descubrí más petroglifos. Por lo tanto, este artículo ofrece una actualización del artículo de Castillo y Barrau.

In November 2016 Daniel Castillo Benítez and María Susana Barrau reported the rock art site of Mayasgo-1 in the Carabamba Valley of northern Peru. In September 2017 I surveyed the same site and discovered more petroglyphs. Therefore this paper offers an update of the report by Castillo and Barrau.

Read more

‘Petroglifos’ Aviformes Tridimensionales (Perú)

This study discusses some rare instances of biomorphic rock formations that also bear petroglyphs, which, in some cases enhance the biomorphic character of the rock. The focus in this study is on the Sacred Sitting Bird at Cerro La Puntilla in northern Peru.

Este estudio discute algunos casos raros de formaciones rocosas biomórficas que también tienen petroglifos, que, en algunos casos, mejoran el carácter biomórfico de la roca. El enfoque en este estudio está en el Ave Sagrado Sentado en Cerro La Puntilla en el norte de Perú.

Read more

Un Sitio Rupestre Poco Conocido en Chicama, Perú

En el Valle de Chicama en el norte de Perú hay muchos sitios de arte rupestre. Más de 20 sitios han sido reportados en esta cuenca (Castillo Benites 2006). Sin embargo, hay sólo unos pocos sitios que tienen un gran número de paneles con petroglifos. La mayoría de los otros sitios de la cuenca de Chicama tienen sólo uno o algunos paneles de petroglifos y la mayoría de ellos son poco conocidos. Este artículo se trata de un sitio poco conocido en Chicama.

By Maarten van Hoek

Read more

Aiapaec in Andean Rock Art ?

Aiapaec probably was the supreme divinity of the Mochica pantheon, an ancient civilisation that emerged in the coastal strip of northern Peru. There are numerous often much differing depictions of full zoo-anthropomorphic figures and – especially – of isolated heads in the Huaca de la Luna near Trujillo that are said to represent Aiapaec. In view of the importance of Aiapaec in this part of Peru it is extraordinary that there are no unambiguous depictions of undeniable Moche origin of this personage in Andean rock art. This paper discusses that problem and describes seven petroglyphs that might symbolise Aiapaec.

By Maarten van Hoek

Read more