Tag Archive for Peru

Palamenco and the Shooting Male

Palamenco is a petroglyph site in the coastal area of Northern Peru. It has some special images, including an image of what I interpreted as a “shooting male”. This petroglyph is unique for Palamenco and possibly for Latin America as well. It is compared with more or less similar examples around the world.

By Maarten van Hoek

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Petroglyphs and a New Geoglyph in the Sama Valley

The Sama Valley in southern Peru has only a few rock art sites. This article describes one of those sites, which is located at Coropuro on the south bank of the river. It has a interesting collection of petroglyphs, some of which might be linked to a previously unnoticed geoglyph nearby.

By Maarten van Hoek

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The Cíceras “Carcancha-Bird” Petroglyphs – Majes, Peru

The Majes drainage in southern Peru boasts the largest collection of rock art in the Andes, especially because of the abundance of petroglyphs at the Toro Muerto and Alto de Pitis. Importantly, both sites have numerous bird petroglyphs of different types. Yet there are other sites in the Majes drainage that also have idiosyncratic bird imagery. One of those sites is Cíceras, which is the subject of this study. I focus on a specific type of bird petroglyphs, for which I tentatively suggest that they have a special transcendent proficiency.

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War and Weapons in Majes Style Rock Art?

This study investigates the possibility whether rock art images in the Majes Valley of southern Peru indeed depict weapons or conflicts between humans. The bio-archaeological excavations and research at Uraca (Majes Valley) by Beth Scaffidi and Tiffiny Tung  suggest that the rock art of especially neighbouring Toro Muerto conveys a preoccupation with violence (Scaffidi and Tung 2020). However, the current study demonstrates that there is not any proof or any convincing graphical context confirming “violent events in nearby petroglyphs”.

By Maarten van Hoek

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Contextualising the Geoglyph of Huacán, southern Peru

Arequipa in southern Peru is very rich in rock art. This study investigates the relationship between the Majes Rock Art Style and the geoglyphs (not a form of rock art, though) in the area. It proves that several geoglyphs are directly related with the petroglyphs of Toro Muerto and also that they are located on ancient routes to and from the Majes Valley. Arequipa en el sur de Perú es muy rico en arte rupestre. Este estudio investiga la relación entre el Estilo del Arte Rupestre de Majes y los geoglifos (no una forma de arte rupestre) en el área. Demuestra que varios geoglifos están directamente relacionados con los petroglifos de Toro Muerto y también que están ubicados en las rutas antiguas desde y hacia el Valle de Majes.

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The Enigma of the “Feathered Homunculus”, Peru

Rock art images often include unexpected and enigmatic elements. This study investigates the petroglyphs of especially anthropomorphic figures in the Majes Valley of southern Peru that have an unanticipated feather-element; a long groove (sometimes slightly curved) with a row of parallel but shorter grooves attached to one side only. This study will describe the petroglyphs of the several types of biomorphs featuring a feather-element, focussing however on the “Feathered Homunculus”, as well as their surprisingly limited distribution.

By Maarten van Hoek

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Feline Petroglyphs in the Majes Valley, Peru

The Majes Valley of southern Peru is well-known for its enormous collection of petroglyphs. A significant diversity of animal species has been depicted on the relatively soft volcanic rocks of those sites. Images of felines are relatively scarce in the Majes Valley, yet they are unexpectedly numerous in absolute terms in the Central Majes Valley. In this study the image of the Majes feline and its graphical anomalies will be discussed, as well as the unexpected distribution pattern of feline imagery in the Majes Valley.

By Maarten van Hoek

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New “Carcancha” Petroglyphs in Arequipa, Peru

This paper presents the description of two new sites in Majes, Peru, both featuring an example of a skeleton-like petroglyph that may spiritually be linked with the Sacred Mountain of Coropuna. The documentation of those two new sites thus reveals new information about the symbolic spatial organization and ritual functions of the “Death Valley of the Andes”. It is especially hypothesized here that the specific setting of those two new sites may indicate a physical “Road to Coropuna”.

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False Information Concerning Majes Rock Art, Peru

Scientific publications should always be reliable. The content may never be incorrect or misleading. This also goes for publications regarding rock art, whether by amateurs or by academics. This short paper deals with two photographs of petroglyphs from the Majes Valley, southern Peru, and the conclusions based upon those illustrations published by two academics from the USA. Regrettably, both the photos and the conclusions are unambiguously incorrect.

By Maarten van Hoek

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Enfrentando los dibujos… ¡otra vez! (Perú)

With great interest I have watched the YouTube Video called: Charla Rupestre: Los Petroglifos de Chillihuay. Arequipa, Perú by Maritza Rodríguez Cerrón and Daniel Chumpitaz Llerena (21 August 2020), two leading Peruvian archaeologists who have intensively surveyed the important rock art site of Chillihuay in southern Peru. However, a couple of those drawings in their 2014-paper drew my attention, as they proved to be incorrect  (PDF available).

by Maarten van Hoek – rockart @home.nl Read more

Enigmatic Configurations in Arequipa Rock Art, Peru

The rock art of Arequipa (southern Peru) is characterised by several idiosyncratic images, like ‘Dancers’. However, also rather simple elements form rare and uncommon configurations that are composed of grooves, arcs of dots and crosses that are hovering over or are emanating from zoomorphic petroglyphs, yet intimately associated. Similar configurations prove to be very rare in global rock art.

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The Incomplete Versus The Unfinished

Only the manufacturer of a rock art image could reliably have informed us whether a rock art image is unfinished or whether it is incomplete. Unfortunately informed knowledge is often completely unavailable. Then only the image and its graphical and cultural context are available to possibly separate the unfinished from the incomplete. Additionally, the incomplete image may even include something invisible. To address these issues I will use the rich rock art repertoire of the Desert Andes, focussing mainly on Toro Muerto and Miculla, two enormous rock art sites in the south of Peru.

By Maarten van Hoek

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The ‘Trophy-Bird’ of Alto de Pitis

This paper provides a few examples of petroglyphs that have drastically been transformed by later rock art manufacturers. However, it focuses on one specific petroglyph, which is found at Alto de Pitis in the Majes Valley of southern Peru; aptly called ‘The Death Valley of the Andes’. In this paper I tentatively argue that the unique ‘Trophy-Bird’ petroglyph of Alto de Pitis initially started off as a ‘trophy’ head, which was later intentionally transformed to symbolise the Supernatural Flight of the Dead towards Apu Coropuna, the Sacred Mountain of the area.

by Maarten van Hoek

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Una Actualización del Arte Rupestre del Cerro la Puntilla, Perú

Este artículo trata sobre el sitio de arte rupestre de La Puntilla en el norte de Perú. Aunque pasé este sitio muchas veces no lo he visitado. Sin embargo, el sitio tiene varios paneles muy interesantes con petroglifos – todos reportados por primera vez por el arqueólogo aficionado local, Francisco Gregorio Díaz Núñez – que serán discutidos en este artículo.

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Una Actualización del Arte Rupestre de Chumbenique – Perú

 

En 2016 visitamos por primera vez el sitio de arte rupestre de Chumbenique en el Valle de Zaña en el norte de Perú. Con base en nuestras investigaciones publiqué un artículo preliminar sobre los petroglifos de Chumbenique (Van Hoek 2016a). En mi artículo de 2016 mencioné que registramos 32 bloques con petroglifos . Sin embargo, volvimos a Chumbenique en septiembre de 2017 para una investigación más exhaustiva y pudimos agregar 21 rocas con petroglifos más. De ahí esta actualización.

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Una Actualización del Arte Rupestre de Mayasgo-1 (Perú)

En noviembre 2016 Daniel Castillo Benítez y María Susana Barrau informaron sobre el sitio de arte rupestre de Mayasgo-1 en el Valle de Carabamba en el norte de Perú. En septiembre de 2017 investigué el mismo sitio y descubrí más petroglifos. Por lo tanto, este artículo ofrece una actualización del artículo de Castillo y Barrau.

In November 2016 Daniel Castillo Benítez and María Susana Barrau reported the rock art site of Mayasgo-1 in the Carabamba Valley of northern Peru. In September 2017 I surveyed the same site and discovered more petroglyphs. Therefore this paper offers an update of the report by Castillo and Barrau.

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‘Petroglifos’ Aviformes Tridimensionales (Perú)

This study discusses some rare instances of biomorphic rock formations that also bear petroglyphs, which, in some cases enhance the biomorphic character of the rock. The focus in this study is on the Sacred Sitting Bird at Cerro La Puntilla in northern Peru.

Este estudio discute algunos casos raros de formaciones rocosas biomórficas que también tienen petroglifos, que, en algunos casos, mejoran el carácter biomórfico de la roca. El enfoque en este estudio está en el Ave Sagrado Sentado en Cerro La Puntilla en el norte de Perú.

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Un Sitio Rupestre Poco Conocido en Chicama, Perú

En el Valle de Chicama en el norte de Perú hay muchos sitios de arte rupestre. Más de 20 sitios han sido reportados en esta cuenca (Castillo Benites 2006). Sin embargo, hay sólo unos pocos sitios que tienen un gran número de paneles con petroglifos. La mayoría de los otros sitios de la cuenca de Chicama tienen sólo uno o algunos paneles de petroglifos y la mayoría de ellos son poco conocidos. Este artículo se trata de un sitio poco conocido en Chicama.

By Maarten van Hoek

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