Tag Archive for Peru

“Trophy” Head # 42 at Toro Muerto?

This short note discusses a possible addition of a “Trophy” Head petroglyph at Toro Muerto, southern Peru. Toro Muerto has the biggest concentration of “Trophy” Head petroglyphs in the Desert Andes. This paper suggests that another example can be added to the grand total, but simultaneously proposes that this new (possible) find – and many other panels at Toro Muerto – should be photographed in optimal circumstances to ascertain its identification.

By Maarten van Hoek

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New “Snake” Petroglyphs – Vítor Valley, Peru

This short paper discusses two new finds of specific biomorphic petroglyphs in the Vítor Valley of Southern Peru and its distribution within the Majes Rock Art Style (MRAS). It proves that this type of biomorphic image is overrepresented in the Vítor Drainage.

By Maarten van Hoek

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A New “Venus” Cross Petroglyph

This short paper discusses a new find of another petroglyph depicting the “Venus-Cross” in the Vítor Valley of Southern Peru. The paper also reviews its distribution within the Majes Rock Art Style (MRAS) and within a much larger area (the Desert Andes). It proves that – for still some unknown reason – the “Venus-Cross” is overrepresented in the Vítor Drainage.

By Maarten van Hoek

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Commenting on Rozwadowski and Wołoszyn

This paper reviews the publication by academic archaeologists, Andrzej Rozwadowski and Janusz Z. Wołoszyn, in which they suggest that zigzag petroglyphs at Toro Muerto in the Majes Valley of southern Peru – constituting the most important rock art site in the Desert Andes of South America – could be representations of songs. In my paper I question a number of their suggestions and statements by trying to put the whole issue in a more appropriate context. I cannot refute their theory, but my objections makes it unlikely (though not impossible) that Toro Muerto zigzags indeed represent songs.

By Maarten van Hoek

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Animated Abstracts in Majes Rock Art

This paper is one of a series of studies that investigates the rock art of the Majes Rock Art Style (MRAS) in southern Peru. This time I focus on petroglyphs of long, pecked stripes that have been animated by the prehistoric Majes People. I now argue that those Animated Stripes and many other typical MRAS images (discussed earlier by me; see my bibliography), including another icon (the “Majes Spitter”, which is the subject of my next study) created the Toro Muerto Anomaly, which – unfortunately – is either unknown or neglected by archaeologists busy in the Majes Valley.

By Maarten van Hoek

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A Study of Boulder AP3-065 – Peru

This paper presents the fifth case in my series of articles in which I discuss a selection of petroglyph boulders at Alto de Pitis, in the Majes Valley of southern Peru. It especially discusses a controversial petroglyph of an anthropomorph that has been interpreted in two most different ways. One rendering of the figure is questioned in this study (updated September 2023).

By Maarten van Hoek

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Majes Rock Art – evaluating a thesis

This paper analyses the 2018-thesis by Prof. Scaffidi. It concerns a revision (dated September 2023).

by Maarten van Hoek

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The “Camelines” of Toro Muerto

In general, it proves to be rather awkward (or even impossible) to establish the exact species of biomorphic images depicted at Toro Muerto (Peru), and thus this is even more problematic for conflations of two or more animals. In this study I argue that at Toro Muerto several petroglyphs of quadrupeds may well depict a specific conflation. With a number of illustrations I will demonstrate that this hypothesis is not far-fetched at all.

By Maarten van Hoek

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The Case of Boulder AP3-098, Alto de Pitis

This paper – the fourth in a series about Alto de Pitis, all published in TRACCE – discusses some specific petroglyphs on Boulder AP3-098, focusing on the possible therianthrope on one of its panels.

By Maarten van Hoek

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The Case of Boulder AP3-060, Alto de Pitis, Majes Valley

My paper describes the images on a boulder that has one of the most complex biomorphic petroglyphs in the Majes Valley and in Arequipa rock art. It may well be death-related, as will be demonstrated. Another death-related petroglyph on an adjoining panel definitely links the boulder – and the whole site – with Apu Coropuna, the most Sacred Mountain of the whole of southern Peru.

By  Maarten van Hoek
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Rock Art at Torán, Majes Valley, Peru

The paper proves that even “minor” rock art sites can be most interesting, especially when placing such a “minor” site in a larger local and regional context. Torán is such an important “minor” site, as it is clearly connected with the two most important “major” rock art sites in the valley; Toro Muerto and Alto de Pitis.

By Maarten van Hoek

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Rock Art at Punta Colorada, Majes, Peru

The paper proves that even “minor” rock art sites can be most interesting, especially when placing such a “minor” site in a larger local and regional context. Punta Colorada is such an important “minor” site as it may well connect (graphically, literally and metaphorically) two most important “major” rock art sites in the valley. Additionally, the site of Punta Colorada also seems to establish the spiritual link between certain rock art icons and Apu Coropuna, the Sacred Mountain of southern Peru.

By Maarten van Hoek

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The Case of Boulder AP3-172, Majes, Peru

This paper describes a huge boulder at Alto de Pitis in the Majes Valley of southern Peru. It has some enigmatic petroglyphs that will be fully discussed. Especially one type of image is most idiosyncratic. It may depict or symbolise domestication of felines.

By Maarten van Hoek

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The Petroglyphs of Cerro San Diego, Peru

This paper describes the petroglyph site of Cerro San Diego, north of Lima. The site has a rather unusual location. Moreover, it has some exceptional petroglyphs, for instance a large purported “eye-motif” from the Andean Formative Period.

By Maarten van Hoek

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The Origin of the Cochineros Bird

It is very rare to find a unique rock art image repeated on ceramics or textiles from contemporaneous cultures. This study discusses the parallel between the unique petroglyph of a deliberately rotated bird image at Cochineros, a rock art site along the Río Mala, and compares the bird with similar images on ceramics and textiles of a surprisingly large coastal area.

By Maarten van Hoek

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A New Petroglyph Site in the Palpa Valley

The valley of the Río Palpa, tributary of the Río Grande drainage in the Department of Ica on the south coast of Peru, is very rich in rock art sites; all comprising petroglyphs. At this moment (July 2022) nine sites with petroglyphs had already been recorded (more information about rock art in the Palpa Valley is available in my book about Páracas rock art: Van Hoek 2021: Fig. 7

By Maarten van Hoek
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Music in Majes Valley Rock Art, Peru

This paper considers the role of music and sound possibly depicted in the rock art of the Central Majes Valley (southern Peru) in view of the Middle Horizon musical instruments found at La Real (and Uraca).

By Maarten van Hoek

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The Case of Boulder AP1-001, Alto de Pitis, Peru.

This paper investigates one enormous boulder with numerous petroglyphs at Alto de Pitis, a major rock art site in the Majes Valley of southern Peru. Two types of petroglyphs on this boulder are being described in more detail and discussed within the context of the rock art of the Majes Valley.

By Maarten van Hoek (Revised September 2023)

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